Race – a category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society deem
• Ethnicity – refers to the characteristics of a group based on shared cultural identity and derived from a
common language, nationality, religion, or ancestry.
• Minority Group – a group that is singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as
objects of collective discrimination.
• Dominant Group – the group with the most power, the greatest privileges, and the highest social
Shared Characteristics of Minority Groups
• Membership in a minority group is an ascribed status
• Physical or cultural traits that distinguish minorities are held in low esteem by the dominant group
• Minorities are unequally treated by the dominant group
• Minorities tend to marry within their own group
• Minorities possess a strong sense of solidarity
Prejudice and Discrimination
• Prejudice – an attitude, or prejudgment, applied to an entire category of people, such as the poor,
women, and racial minorities. Prejudices can be positive or negative, but are usually negative.
• Discrimination – an act of unfair or unequal treatment directed against an individual or a group.
1) Individual Discrimination – negative treatment of one person by another on the basis of perceived
2) Institutional/Systemic Discrimination – negative treatment of a minority group that is built into
• Stereotypes – prejudicial, exaggerated descriptions of some category of people.
Patterns of Racial-Ethnic Group Relations
Dominant Group Actions: Forms of Acceptance
• Amalgamation is the process by which subcultures of various groups are blended together, forming a
new culture; this is the highest level of minority group integration (e.g., Interracial mar