• Redlining is the pattern of discrimination against people trying to buy homes in minority and racially
• Research finds that in twenty-five metropolitan areas, housing agents showed fewer housing units to
Blacks and Latinos, steered them to minority neighborhoods, and gave them less assistance in finding
housing that met their needs. Other recent studies reveal that lenders are more likely to turn down a
mortgage request from a minority applicant than from an equally qualified White and that lenders give
minority applicants far less assistance in filling out their forms.
• People in predominantly minority neighborhoods have also found that service deliverers refuse to go
into their area. This service redlining covers everything from parcel deliveries to repair people to food
• Environmental racism refers to the overwhelming likelihood that toxic-producing plants and toxic
waste dumps are located where poor people, especially racial minorities, live.
• The irony of the poor having to sacrifice to the most harmful environmental problems is that they are
not the polluters—the affluent are. The wealthy drive excessively; travel in jet planes; have large, air-
conditioned homes; consume large quantities of resources (conspicuous consumption); and have the
most waste to dispose.
Exclusion of Minorities in Social Clubs
• A particularly insulting form of discrimination seemed finally to be on its way out in the late 1980s.
Many social clubs had limitation forbidding membership to racial/ethnic minorities and women. For
years, exclusive clubs argued that they were merely selecting friends, but in fact, a principal function of
these clubs is as a forum to transact business.
• Memberships are restrictive organizations remain perfectly legal. The rise to national attention as
professional golfer Tiger Woods made the public aware that there were at least twenty-three golf
courses he would be prohibited from playing by virtue of race. In 2002, women’s groups tried
unsuccessfully to have the golf champion speak out as the Master’s and British Open played on courses
closed to women as members.
The Glass Ceiling
• Discrimination persists for even the well-educated and those who come from the best family
backgrounds. As subordinate group members are able to compete successfully, they sometimes encounter attitudinal or organizational bias that prevents them from reaching their full potential. This
barrier, referred to as the glass ceiling, blocks the promotion of a qualified worker because of minority
• There are numerous reasons for glass ceilings. Decision makers may be concerned that their clientele
will not trust them if they have too many people of color or may worry that a talented woman could
become overwhelmed with her duties as a mother and a wife and thus perform poorly in the workplace.
The glass ceiling can also result from sex-, race-, and ethnicity-based stereotyping and harassment,
unfair recruitment practices, and lack of family-friendly workplace policies.
Explaining Inequality: The Pseudoscience of “Intelligence” Testing
• The theme of intellectual inferiority along racial lines has received much public atten