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Lecture 5

SOC 2700 Lecture 5: LECTURE 5

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University of Guelph
SOC 2700
Reza Barmaki

SOC 2700 Week 7 Lecture 5 Tuesday October 25 th Emile Durkheim 1. Social bonds = Solidarity  Mechanical >> Organic  Similarity >> specialization  Collective Conscience (cc)  Division of Labour (DL)  Law: Punitive / Contract 2. Crime:  normal part of society  Deviation from norm 3. Anomie (a) destruction / dysfunction of old norms (b) conflict: old & new norms  Desires / Authority / Suicide Past Present MS --------------------> OS Collective Consciousness / beliefs --------------------> Division of Labour DL --------------------> CC As division of labour increases, collective beliefs decrease Brutal forms of punishment in history have relaxed Social disorganization = normative disorganization  Crime producing areas / zones: delinquency / slum / interstitial / disadvantaged o some areas commit more crime than others. The cause of crime is usually about the confusion of norms.  Biological / psychological defects  Oedipus / Electra complexes  normative disorganization: the cause of crime is usually about the confusion of norms o Conflicts btw norms o Coexistence of non contradictory norms o Ambiguities of norms o Loss of belief in intrinsic validity of norms : o Causes psychological anguish because thye don’t know what to do- strain theory o Lots of different ideologies and the loss of culture  Youth Delinquency: deviant subculture o Applied social states of young people to youth crime and an explanatory mechanism o Paying attention to the deviant subculture o Contradictory codes Chicago school: spoke to eugenics – changed the foundation of criminality making it no loner a viable option Learning is very important when it comes to criminal activity – if you are exposed, educated to or desentized by criminality you are at high risk for engaging in criminal behaviour -Everything we do is guided by norms  “The Definition of the Situation” Honour killing: killing someone after they have brought dishonoured to the family in accordance to ones religion. (here we are talking about criminal norm conflict) -Conflict results in social disorganization. their psychological investments are no longer normative or even legal Key concept: The definition of the situation- we need to know the norms of a place and function within them Creation of deviant identity (Labelling Theory: Social Reaction Theory) 1. C. H. Cooley: “looking-glass self”: interaction / reflection- we feel as though we are a representation of how people see us. The key idea is that we do not write this but rather the interaction of other people. It has a lot to do with interaction of people around you (primary groups are the people that you have the most interaction with ie: family- these interactions are emotionally invested). We imagine whom other people see ourselves and denies how we perceive ourselves and act from it. Positive interactions with primary groups results with primary groups results in positive self image. Same for negative. Our senses in self results in out conduct 2. Frank Tannenbaum: Dramatization of Evil –tagging The creation of deviant identity will be a serious risk factor for doing it again. Labels isolate people . They don’t have the power to hide their criminality behind doors 3. Labelling Theory (Edwin Lemert)  Deviance: normal response  Criminal justice: deviant labels- the criminal justice system creates a negative self concept and labels hem to make them commit deviant acts  criminalization of dissent / oppression of weak / production of crime & criminals  Primary / Secondary deviance 4. Howard Becker: His focus was on adolescents as he said that if they are labelled it will become their master status- the identity that overrides the other one because we all have multiple identities  master status / outsider: no body wants them anymore  Moral Entrepreneurs: are individuals that will make the criminal justice focus on certain issues.  Secondary deviance is important
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