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SOC 2700 (268)
C Yule (8)

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University of Guelph
SOC 2700
C Yule

March 28 , Developmental and Life Course Cont’d Stevie -abandoned at an early age -beaten by his mom before abandonment -emotional and physical abuse -losing the opportunity of the positive role model of his brother -allegedly engages in the sexual assault of a child -loner, trouble at a young age -all of this would indicate that he has all the indicators for a life course offender -continuity of offending is important -Moffett would say focus on early intervention -after the age of about 18, it is a lost cause Sampson & Laub’s age-Graded Theory—Crime in the Making 1993 -theory of age graded social control -informal control is age graded in the sense that the salience/importance of bonds differs as you age -parents, then peers, then spouse -main proposition=an individual’s propensity to offend is dependent upon involvement in conventional activities -informal social controls are the main focus of this theory -social bonds as crucial for counting for the distribution of crime (attachment to parents, commitment to school, etc.) -discuss turning points, if an offender is fortunate enough to find a good marital partner, or a job that is fulfilling, these are the types of things that will lead to desistance -turning points—the mechanisms that alter the life course, changing a risk pathway to a more adaptive one -although trajectories are influenced by early experiences, Sampson and Laub believe that social factors (specifically informal controls) can modify trajectories, reducing offending in adulthood—criminality is not solely defined by traits rooted in childhood -Moffett saw continuity in offending, whereas Sampson and Laub emphasize stability and change, not one or the other -unlike Moffett, they pathways to crime are not set, if they can form the important social bonds, it will be enough to steer them away from offending -too much of a focus of crime as a primary feature, and too much focus on only teenagers, too much emphasis on individuals, and not on things like the influence of education or marriage -childhood is not your destiny, whereas Moffett believed this, similar to Hirschi and Gottfredson -life course development is dynamic regardless of age -the role of transitions within life trajectories generates turning points or changes in one’s pathway Influencing Factors -childhood: family dynamics including erratic/harsh discipline, low levels of supervision, parental rejection -adolescence: association with delinquent peer groups, lack of attachment to school, involvement in the juvenile justice system -young adulthood: labour markets, marriage, prison, military -it is the quality of the bonds, not the quantity of the bonds!! Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives -found a group of offenders, then followed them over 50 years -contacting them is a major issue -they could die -problem -ridiculously expensive -all begin by committing crime -52 of the original 500 men -ma
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