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Labelling Theory.docx

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SOC 2700
Scott Brandon

Labelling Theory 1) Labelling theory defined the nature of the reaction that makes a deviant act more succeptable to negativity and stereotyping.  of behaviors that is socially constructed as a deviant behavior  ex. Child abuse, wife battering, drinking and driving different ideas of societal reaction differential kinds of act defined deviant based on societal reaction 2) How is labelling theory unique  Connection with the process  Subjectivity- different types of ways we look at meaning and the ways meanings arise  Constructed meanings  meanings of various types of offenses behavior  changes over time, subjectivity certain types of ideas defined within labelling theory certain aspects of deviants that didn’t exists  Natural history of crime looking at the way deviance is actual tied to crime different ways our culutre has looked in history at different times in society origins: where these came from  Social reaction to deviance many types of deviance just based on social reaction, where these things actually come from shifting from normal behavior to deviant behavior ex. Drinking and driving becoming illegal 3) Key influences of labelling theory  Symbolic interaction  meanings associated with different levels of behavior and the societal reactions historically many of these have had no types of sanction within the CJS meanings: subjective interaction (changes throughout time) arises out of interaction MADD: mothers across world making it illegal against drinking and driving and getting laws changed how does it affect someone’s identity being labelled as deviant issues of self-identity  Looking glass self significant content of labelling theory people care about what others think about you become what people actually think about us because of labels; reflection of identity  Identity is socially conferred social stigma (jail) acceptance of stigma (when re-enter into the community) identity is tied to reflection. Self-identity is shaped by the reaction of society  Why labelling and symbolic interaction labelling goes hand and hand in the concept of deviance and crime 4) Some ideas of labelling theory  Rejects objectivity certain groups of people had to come along and say somehow these things are deviance, and pass legislation about it rejection of the tangible form of deviance  Deviance is relative things are within the eye of the beholder: people have to come along and see something and say that this is deviant things that used to be deviant that weren’t anymore (child abuse, marital rape, smoking in public places) and vise-versa(tattoos, atheism, homosexuality) relative based upon the generation,  Deviance is a process by which the community response to certain types of behavior  Selective targeting of deviants certain types of people are targeted as deviant race: police targeting certain people within certain areas class: over policing in certain areas  Societal reaction over act of offender various groups of people that produce reaction  Natural history of deviance definitions important for talking about the actual acts that become deviant over periods of time (ex. Opium dens way back in the day, prohibition) long historical natural history that deviance definitions have changed over time 5) Is deviance universal  Some examples theft: our perceptions of theft change based on the situation you’re actually in homicide: situational; self defense, not culpable incest: cultural; some cultures are cool with marrying your cousins child sexual abuse: wrong in Canada is normal in other places ex. Young males in tribes ritual into manhood: go off and they gave head to older tribal males (Gebusis) 6) What do labelling theorist actually study?  History in terms of where aspects of deviance actually come from  Application of labels where do these behavior come from in the application of labels smoking in advertising has changed time and place labels are enforced  Consequences of labelling process labelling process is actually more important than the actual label attached application of labels by certain types of people what are the various types of deviance that cause labels 7) Assumptions of the labelling process based upon values and varies types of norms various ways social rules are actually created different creation of social rules through laws and defintions various enforcements of these laws and how they come into play 8) Where did labelling theory originate  Rejection of positivism reject that you can actually physically the study the way it emerges  Rise of the Chicago School of Sociology  Rise of Ethnography study of qualitative field research through interviews going our and studying the actually behavior in society  Meanings of official statistics rejection of positivist use of statistics critical ways statistics has categorized the way deviance take place, nothing about the origin or the meanings of these behavior themselves stats generally used for political purposes 9) Founders: Edwin Lemart & Howards Becker 10) Lemert: Primary, secondary and tertiary deviance  Primary: trouble and accommodation Actual deviant act Norm violation into crime or social deviance Little or no consequences for violator  accommodation of deviance becomes very important  Secondary: deviance amplification norm violation comes attention to others  deviance amplification is where secondary deviance pushes actor outside of community and gains deviant status; becomes criminalized and stigmatized social outing of the person within the community prolonged negative changed to person identity, criminalization, punishment  Tertiary: deviant response Society response to deviance reaction to deviance itself turning deviant label onto it’s head 11) Difference between primary, secondary and tertiary deviance 12) Howard S Becker Professor by 21!  Definition of deviance where it comes from reaction to the label of deviance outsiders, outcasts, stigmatized people who have been successful labelled and internalization of the deviance label  Ideas about deviance deviance is created by society.. deviance is not quality of the act of the person who commits but rather a consequence of the application by the others of rules and sanctions of the ‘offender;. The deviant is the one whom the label have been successfully applied.  Not every rule breaker gets labeled it’s the label that causes the deviance, not the action  Two groups: rules breakers and rule makers whole variety of circumstance that exists which the definitions of deviance originate from  Moral entrepreneurship (rule creators) people who are in the role of creating more rules, laws and enforcing actual laws legislators, action groups grassroots level, changing people’s views and creating deviance acts prohibit many types of behavior  Importance of rule enforcement involved in criminalizing certain types of behavior that are morally offensive 13) Problems faced by labelling theorists  The social construction of deviance who what where when why because important in the labelling process   Effects of labelling on behavior crime rate, secondary deviance, terti
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