SOC 2700 Lecture Notes - Classical Conditioning, Jeremy Bentham, White-Collar Crime

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Published on 23 Nov 2011
Department
Course
Professor
Lecture October 25th 2011
Contemporary Classicism
1. Contemporary classicism
-umbrella for several theories
-motivation and choice in crime
2. Classical thought: early influences
-Cesare Beccaria
-Jeremy Bentham
-utilitarian philosophy
3. Core ideas:
-people are rational calculators
-some component of us where we think about consequences
-we all have free will
-we don't get compelled
-rationalize
-people choose behaviours
-people also fear punishment
-methods of crime prevention
-how can we punish so people will think about it
-e.g. U.S. more higher penalties
-punishment has to fit the crime
4. Deterrence Theory
-draws on classical ideas
-importance of rationality
-goal is to prevent crime
-punishment can deter crime
-general vs. specific deterrence
-general-occasionally deviant
-specific-
-three dimensions of punishment: (severity, certainty and swiftness)
5. Debates about deterrence
-effectiveness of deterrence-based policies
-do they increase or decrease crime?
-12-17 years of age are most likely to act before they think
6. Other debates: Problems of certainty
-tests of absolute deterrence and marginal deterrence
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-look at when you have no punishment system vs. when you do
-people feel more safe
7. Other debates: problems of severity
-role of capital punishment
-brutalization effect
8. Test of Deterrence
-scared strait program
-after a movie
-took teenagers and put them in a max. security facility and has the ppl come in
and shows them what will happen if they misbehave
-not hard criminals that this was being done too
-not necessarily worked
-boot camp
-physical work as punishment
-temporary solution
-talk shows
-idea where kids are being talked to so they will "change"
-temporary solution
9. Rational choice theory
-assumes that there is economic choices behind peoples behaviour
-ties to classicism
-free will
-rational calculators
-people are rational by nature
-weigh the consequences to the gains
-"economic" ideas of behaviour
-maximization of benefits/rewards
-avoid costs of crime
10. Rational choice and crime
-sanctions can be informal or formal
-benefits can be tangible (money) or intangible (thrill, peer respect)
11. Research on rational choice
-derek cornish and ronald clarke
-the importance of decisions in crime
-criminal involvement, criminal events and income (does crime pay?)
-Burglary: selection of good areas and targets
12. Routine activity theory
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