Thomas Hobbes: Humans are born badly, and the only way to keep them from doing
bad is to have rules and a social contract.
Cesare Lombroso: humans are born criminals – we have original sin
“Origional Sin” Example
1. Park hurt Prison, Britain, C-Wing
Patrick ( inmate) says that both is parents served time, and that it is just naturally in him
to be in jail, its in his heritance.
Danny – robbed and murdered people, through personal things they said- Dr. asks if he
thinks its in his blood ? – he replies, well my father has always been a violent person, I
knew that I have in my personality that would kill- he wanted to know how it felt to have
the power over another human being – as he got older it was stuck more and more. I
thought that im born evil – he just gets pleasure in hurting people for no reason
Andre Guerry and Adolphe Quetlelet argue that crime happens from those who are
brought up in low economy families who want more
John Locke and Tabula Rosa – People are born with a blank slate – their experiences
are what shape them
Karl Marx- the conflict struggle between social classes. – depends on where you grow
Strain theory: people are unable to support themselves and have to resort to other means
“Origional Sin” Example
John McVicar was a criminal and from his perspective, he chose to be one – the
circumstances he found himself in made him commit crime – he grew up in a sub culture
– in crime for most od his teens.
It became an issue when his son was following the same path - he says that yes he has
the same genes as his father but hes also growing up in the same area, having to deal with
the same circumstances
o Could there ever be a gene for behavior used as an excuses?
NO, unless this gene so determined behavior that it over road free will.
Biological Theories of Crime
The earliest biological theories in criminology emphasized physical appearance as the
distinguishing mark of a criminal
This even dates back to the ancient Greek times with Socrates, and travels several years
Johan Lavater and Physiognomy – the relationship between facial features and human
Joseph Gall and Phrenology- the relationship between the exterior brain and the
different inner parts of the brain.
Gustave Le Bon and Craniology- the relationship between the skull size and shape in
relation to being a criminal.
William Sheldon – The study of different body types. o People start off as embryos, and as we grow we develop into one of three body
Ceasare Lombroso and the “ Born Criminal”
o Expanded on these thoughts to the whole body in one
o Relied on Darwin’s theory of Evolution being that some people are biological
throwbacks to an earlier evolutionary stage.
o Lombroso called these people Atavistic criminals – criminals that are less
evolved then other people
Children tend to resemble their parents in appearance, mannerisms, and disposition.
Goring did several studies and found that there was a high correlation between the length
of imprisonment of parents and their children