Cesare lombroso (1835-1909): theory of criminal man : some ties with biology and crime, wanted to use positivism: can we predict crime, atavism as an idea. Ex: women hit puberty earlier now than we did before. Scanty beards (in europe all men had beards: stigmata, born criminal. Lombroso s classification of criminals: see page 24 of text. Crime prevention strategies: prison: keeps criminals off the streets. Origins of theories on biology and crime: evolutionary theory, physical traits and links to crime? (born criminals) Born criminal theory: physiognomy: developed by john caspar lavater (1741-1801, facial features used to judge moral character, nose, earlobes, eyes, chin lines, beards, etc. Born criminal theory: phrenology: founders: franz joseph gall (1776-1828) and johann casper spurzheim (1776, mapped areas of the outside skull, areas indicative of brain function, certain areas indicate criminality. Born criminal theory: craniometry: developed in part by gustave le bon, classification of human types based on skull measurement and size.