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Jan. 16-18-20.docx

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SOC 2700
Scott Brandon

th Jan. 16 History of Crime (Part One) - Three types of crime explanation o External forces:  Nature  Weather caused crime  Cosmology  Significance of sun, moon, stars and astronomy (how the planets/stars lined up causes people to act deviant  Lunar eclipse was believed to be caused by someone acting deviant within a society  Demonology  Human spirits, ghosts, witchcraft  Supernatural forces cause people to act deviant through inhabitation of the body  Source is unknown (unknown who is a witch and who isn’t within a society  Adultery/gossiping is conducted by a witch o Internal causes  Physiological/biological makeup is a reason for crime  Earlobe sizes, chin line, lower vs. higher I.Q., etc.  Doctors acted to treat/rehabilitate those with physiological/biological makeups that may be likely to commit crimes o Group association  Crime is based on where someone is born, grows up, lives, etc.  Gang activities tend to happen in certain areas instead of being dispersed - The objective/subjective debate o Objective: behaviour is real  Tangible, measurable  Ex: gravity  Ex: shooting may result in death (depending on where the bullet hits) o Subjective: behaviour is constructed  Interpretation of what happened in a situation  Ex: someone runs into a room, steals a purse and runs out – different students will remember the suspect differently  Ex: someone who grew up in a society where the police racially profiled people will see that racial profiling does occur. Whereas, someone who grew up on a farm would not because they did not live through that experience - The Classical School of criminology (1680-1800) o Tied to the enlightenment period o Role of hedonism (self-interest)  Only care/think about themselves, do not consider the future consequences  Results in loss of self-control o Importance of free will  Ability to choose from right and wrong  Conform to laws or break the laws o Social contract  True democracy  Everyone gives up freedoms/rights to the state and receive back those freedoms/rights, along with more (Ex: taxation, protection by police, free health care, etc.) o Role of punishment o Utilitarianism (greatest good) o Philosophers (Voltaire, Arouet, Hobbes, Kant and Hume) th Jan. 18 - Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) o Book: “On Crime and Punishments” o Classification of crimes:  High treason  Ex: terrorism, warfare, identity theft, etc.  Personal security  Ex: break and enter, assault, trespassing, etc.  Public tranquility  Ex: Disturbing the peace, resisting arrest, protests during G20 Summits, etc. o Measure of crime: social harm o Punishment and the right to punish  Law  Authority of judges
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