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Lecture 5

homicide reader summaries week 5 to 8.docx

4 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 2760
Professor
Dan Meegan

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Description
The man who studies murder Living in US you are 10x more likely to be killed Lives in newfy; almost 0% homicide rates - English murderers were more likely to kill themselves and admit to the murder and feel remorse - Same as anywhere else in means of drug offenders, low incomers etc.. - English murder rate low for many centuries, even in 1400’s was still low - Kennedy in the reader inequality and homicide - Homicide in Canada is regionally distributed, rising from east to west - Uneven distributions of social rewards corresponds with a breakdown of social relations and increased incidence of crime - In Canada crime persists in an east to west phenomenon over personal and property crime - Evidence links poverty, unemployment, social class and economic influence with violence - Absolute inequality (poverty and relative inequality social disorganization - Durkheim – poorly integrated communities have higher rate of crime - Things that lead to social breakdown which increase crime rate are: unsettling effects of pop. Change, imbalance over large age cohort, tension with divorced families and/or conflict between ethnic groups regional and temporal variations in homicide - Americans homicide rates go north to south - Higher levels of transiency, alcohol abuse and divorce in the west - Unemployment varies over time and across region with a generally negative relationship to homicide in Canada method and measurement - Relationship with inequality, social disorganization and regional location will be tested using Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) data - Greater than 100,000 - Advantage in this research is that there is a greater range of variability in dependent and independent variables, may examine temporal changes - Dependent variable – total reported homicide rate per 100,000 pop. - Police department reports to Statistics Canada via “homicide return” contains info about time, location, victims, offenders, offenses and court appearances - Main indicators of social disorganization in the literature on homicide include migration, marital dissolution, urbanization, racial and ethnic heterogeneity and age composition - Disorganization is said to be highest in urban areas, undergoing rapid pop. Change Findings - Dramatic shift in family income dissimilarity in CMAs as compared to the average Canadian family income - Most other things do not show a great deal of change - Unemployment increases in variability - In 1972-76 inequality is the most important factor leading to homicide - In 1981-1976 social disorganization has a stronger effect on homicide - Government interventions to remove disparities in income inequality and economic opportunity could coincide with a decrease in homicide rates - Structural changes in the environment may more likely affect homicides occurring with strangers whereas interpersonal characteristics and circumstances may better explain primary homicides Ouimet in Reader – this paper examines the long terms crime trends in Canada and US - Both Canada and the US are experimenting their first prolonged decline in crime rates - US can be explained by the increase in number of police, more aggressive policing, and increased use of incarceration - This paper claims that the decline in crime lies in the demographic shifts, improved employment opportunities and changes in collective values - Since 1992 most crime has declined in Canada - In Germany the total offence rate in 1993- 1999 dropped 7.8% and in England 15.6% - Canada has a more egalitarian society; easy access education universal access to health care services - Differences between Canada and US  more police in US per capita, and courts more likely to sentence offenders to jail or prison, average terms of prison are longer while possibility for parole is greater in Canada - Homicide rate is 3-4 times higher in US, trends are still comparable to Canada - Both increased in first three decades of century - Dro
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