SOC 3110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Guru Har Rai, Guru Amar Das, Tilaka

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 3110
Professor
Lecture 6 – Sikhism
Developed in an area called Punjab
A region with a history of increasing religious conflicts between Hindus and
Muslims
Since the 10th century CE, much of North India came under the rule of the
Muslims.
The conquest was the most devastating to Buddhists
The Muslims ruled over 500 hundred years
The Mughal Empire controlled northern and central India from 1526 to 1707
Seen as the second era of Muslim rule
In the first century, the Mughal rule was peaceful, giving rise to Indo-Islamic
culture in architecture and fine arts (e.g. The Taj Mahal )
Both Hinduism and Islam existed, though sometimes with conflicts
Both religions share an appreciation for religious devotion and the attainment
of mystical states
In Hinduism, there were the devotees of bhakti yoga. In Islam, there was
“Sufism”, the Islamic mystical tradition (some scholars maintain that Sufism
derived much early inspiration from Hinduism)
Both religions recognize the important role of a spiritual master
There was also the North Indian “Sant tradition” - (the term “Sant” may carry
the meaning of “holy ascetic”, “truth” or “saint”)
Three elements contributed to the rise of the Sant tradition:
1. Bhakti or devotional practice
2. Tantric yoga
3. Sufism
There were many influential Sant poets, including Namdev, Ravidas, Kabir
The first teacher: Nanak (1469-1539)
Composed more than 900 hymns, compiled as the Adi Granth. He said he had
experienced God directly, and the experience revealed to him was that: there
is only one God, beyond all names and conceptions
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