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Lecture 7

SOC3110 lecture 7

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SOC 3110

Lecture 7 – Buddhism • Three vehicles: Theravada ( Hinayana), Mahayana ,Vajrayana • Theravada ( Hinayana) Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia, Laos • Mahayana  China, North and South Korea, Mongolia, Japan ,Taiwan , Singapore, (Vietnam) • Vajrayana Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, Mongolia, (some forms of tantric Buddhism are also practiced in Japan and China) • Triple Gems: o Buddha (the enlightened one) o Dharma (buddhavacana: doctrine and vinaya) o Samgha (spiritual community) th • Buddhism originated in the religious context of the 6 cent B.C. India as part of the sramana movement • Teaching of the impermanence of the Human self or soul (atman): anatman = no self • Social egalitarianism (reacted to the oppressive nature of ‘Hinduism’ or Brahmanical Hinduism) • “middle way” • Siddhartha Gautama. Fifth or fourth century BCE. A prince from a Kingdom of Southern Nepal, born in Lumbini of the clan of Sakya • Sakyamuni – Sage of the Sakya clan • Samyaksambuddha – perfectly enlightened • The four sights at age 29: Old age, Sickness, Death, monk • The four noble truths • Duhkha (Suffering) 1. There is suffering in samsara 2. Suffering arises from desire 3. There can be an end to our suffering 4. The end of suffering can be attained through following the eightfold path • The eight fold path –Right- 1. view 2. thought 3. speech 4. conduct 5. livelihood 6. effort 7. mindfulness 8. meditations HUMB04 Lecture 8 – Buddhism II Foundation Teachings of the Buddha: • Four Noble Truths: 1. There is suffering in samsara 2. Suffering arises from desire 3. There can be an end to our suffering 4. The end of suffering can be attained through following the eightfold path ] • Dependent-origination: • All things are constantly changing: a process, a flux. • These changes effect subsequent changes in other things: karma • The twelve links of the chain of dependent-origination: 1) Ignorance 2) karma formations 3) consciousness 4) body-mind complex 5) six senses 6) sense impressions (contacts) 7) feelings 8) craving 9) grasping 10) ‘becoming’ (the drive to be reborn) 11) rebirth 12) old age and death • “Conditioned-arising” • The Three Baskets (Tripitaka): Sutra, Vinaya, Abhidharma • Five Precepts, Refraining from: 1. Destroying the life of sentient beings 2. Taking things not given 3. Sexual misconduct 4. False speech 5. Intoxicants • On the holy days, three additional precepts are observed: 1. abstaining from eating after noon 2. abstaining from dancing, singing, music, the use of perfumes and ornaments 3. abstaining from using high and luxurious seats • Buddhist Community o Buddhist monks: bhiksu o Buddhist nuns: bhiksuni o Laymen o Laywomen • Schism within the Buddhist community into two major groups (the Sthavira and the Mahasamghika), around 100 years after the death of the Buddha • Later split further into 20 schools • The “Theravada” school is the only tradition from those early 20 schools that still survives today • How rebirth is possible without a “Self” (atman)? • Analogies of the billiard balls and the candle flame • Buddhism has been transmitted for centuries as an oral tradition • The first Buddhist canon was written down around the first century BCE • It was also around that time when the Mahayana movement began • Mahayana Teachings: o Emptiness (sunyata) o “Form is emptiness, emptiness is form; form is not separate from emptiness, and emptiness is not separate from form.” o The Perfection of Wisdom Sutras (Prajnaparamita-sutra) o The not
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