SOC 3750 Group Note Swap.pdf

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 3750
Police in Society – Week One 2012-10-13 3:00 PM
Historical Overview of Police
Marx
o Class analysis
! Society can be defined this way; the basis of the structure of society
! Working-class vs. ruling-class (proletariat/bourgeoisie)
o How do police relate to capital?
! Working class typically works dangerous jobs; does not access capital beyond what they make in
minimum wage
! Selling labour as means to survive; no say in ultimate decisions for nation/law
! May be exploited because they are so dependent on wage
o Ruling class " control capital, control law
! Police is considered the first line of bodies of armed men for the ruling class; defend interest of
ruling class
o Police’s role is tied directly to the state, and the wealth of the ruling class
! Although they in the working class, they work for the well-being of the ruling class
Durkheim - Functionalism (Consensus)
o Durkheim Analogy
! “The Machine” " different parts make the whole machine work; they all have their own purposes
and particular parts… as long as people uphold their roles and functions, we will have social order
o There’s always been crime in society; therefore it holds a function in society… serves a particular purpose
! Make us evaluate our own morals/values
o Society has…
! Structure
! Function
# Manifest (immediate function to arrest people, punish)
# Latent (unintended functions i.e. jail teaches people how to be better criminals)
# Positive/negative (functional/dysfunctional)
o Laws
! Reflect values/norms of consensual society; essentially there is an agreement among the people
that something should be against the law
o Mechanical solidarity " social order
! Mechanical = more primitive, smaller communities/pre-industrial times… extreme dependence on
one another for survival
o Organic solidarity = organic dependence… but there is a dependence on people with a multitude of social
order, therefore less consequences when one person breaks the law (less severe punishment)
o State
Weber Legitimacy (giving legitimacy to particular positions)
o Legal authority (legal domination) prince, monarchy, pope, etc.; rational legal authority
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! Appointment (political leaders elected)
! Procedures (specific law is written, process for everything)
! Rule of law (we agree to law of obedience; social contract so that we can have order)
! Justice (people not misrepresenting their power in order to achieve a selfish goal; expected that
justice is end result)
Weber Validity
o Rationality and values " everyone follows same laws/procedure; based on social contract
o Consistency " in the system
o Authority subject " obeying people because of their position; not because of the person
o Obey authority " members of the same society, want social order
Feminism (Liberal)
o Goal equality and justice for all
o Neutrality changing words, language, legal doctrines so that the way we perceive things is
different/more fair
! i.e. “rape” used to be very gender defined… no considered “sexual assault”; this area of sexual
assault is most noticeable
o Sexual assault
! 1983 Law changed from “rape” to sexual assault, and three levels of sexual assault
# Gender neutral; male/female can be victim/perpetrator
# Spouses (used to not be possible) " just because you’re married, doesn’t mean you give
up legal rights to your body
o Court
! Used to be allowed, as a rape victim, in court you could ask a victim of their sexual history
used to be understood that if a woman already had given consensual sex before it was not possible
to be raped
! Rape shield provision " victims of sexual assault cannot be asked about sexual history
! Domestic violence " most areas in Ontario there are mandatory arrest laws… if police arrive on a
domestic violence call, they must arrest whoever is believed to had acted violently (up to police
discretion)
History of Policing in Canadaindustrialization/urbanization
o 1650’s police (“watchmen”) " mostly French; typically volunteers; no formal training
! Training
! Organization
o British dominance (1759)
! Constables, working under the Queen
! Reflection of more politics that is put into place; can be arrested for disobeying the Queen
(treason)
o Upper Canada (Ontario)
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! First notable constables from Canada (mainly Ontario)
! Court orders carried out in Montreal/QC; more formally organized
o Close of 1800’s
! Upper Canada trying to be more organized; Constables appointed to actual townships and
territories for police
! Police given more control than they had before; but still on a volunteer basis
! Offenses
o Constables
! The state; taking responsibility for social order; given legal authority to exercise control over
people
! Police given authority to use force
! Robert Peel " founded the London Metropolitan Police in 1859; “we can never forget that
constables are people to, they are citizens of the world in which they police…”
# Distinction between formal organizations of police, and the small communities where
police came from (trust worthy)
! Should be transparent in actions; and have political neutrality
o 1800’s showed need for more police, with urbanization/industrialization
! Class relations " brought too many people in one spot (near the border/water); needs to be
controlled
! Opportunity " bringing working class closer to upper class (creating conflict; need to restore
order); also brings opportunity for crime (i.e. black market/prostitution)
! Urban sprawl
History of Policing in Canada: Nation building
o Identity becoming our own country; what does it mean to be Canadian?
o Social control/size
o Began on the East coast, but migrated to the West
! Wanted to conquer it in a controlled fashion; wanted police to control conquering land
o BNAA (1867) only four provinces
o Federal-provincial divide; federal govt. defines criminal law, but the province pays for enforcing the law
o Dominion Police (1868) " protected federal property; Parliament buildings in Ottawa
! Known in 1911 as Canada’s Eastern Police Force; to protect federal property
! In 1973 became Northwest Mounted Police; trying to control development in the Northwest area
! From there, became known as the RCMP
o 20th century
! Growth
! Centralization, bureaucratization and hierarchy
! Technology
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Document Summary

Historical overview of police: marx, class analysis. Society can be defined this way; the basis of the structure of society. Working class typically works dangerous jobs; does not access capital beyond what they make in minimum wage. Selling labour as means to survive; no say in ultimate decisions for nation/law. May be exploited because they are so dependent on wage: ruling class control capital, control law. Police is considered the first line of bodies of armed men for the ruling class; defend interest of ruling class: police"s role is tied directly to the state, and the wealth of the ruling class. Although they in the working class, they work for the well-being of the ruling class: durkheim - functionalism (consensus, durkheim analogy. Make us evaluate our own morals/values: society has . Manifest (immediate function to arrest people, punish) Latent (unintended functions i. e. jail teaches people how to be better criminals)

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