TOX 4100 Lecture Notes - Gastrointestinal Tract, Stratified Squamous Epithelium, Trichothecene

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
Department
Course
TOX*4100.
Written by Garry Go
Gastro-Intestinal Toxicity
Some of the major functions of the alimentary tract include digestion, absorption,
elimination, and defence.
Characteristic of the upper alimentary tract is a stratified squamous epithelium
(flattened epithelial cells) variable in terms of thickness and permeability.
Upper GI tract includes:
- Mouth
- Pharynx
- Esophagus
- Stomach
A chaotropic agent denatures macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
Some notable agents that can affect the alimentary tract include acids,
formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, heavy metals (lead, mercury, etc.), and detergents.
Trichothecene mycotoxins (a toxic secondary metabolite produced by the organisms
of the fungi kingdom like molds) are powerful inhibitors of protein synthesis. This is
done by interaction with the ribosomes structures within the cell responsible for
protein synthesis.
These mycotoxins can cause rapid irritation to the skin or the intestinal mucosa upon
contact. They can cause lesions in the digestive tract.
T-2 toxin is known as the most toxic trichothecene. T-2 toxins have the capability to
inhibit eukaryotic protein synthesis as well as induce apoptosis. It has been shown
that T-2 toxins can inhibit proliferation and Ig production in human lymphocytes. T-2
toxins can upregulate procaspase 3 and caspase 3 apoptotic factors.
Mild GI mucosal injury can manifest itself in pain, increased motility (vomiting,
diarrhea), increased secretion (mucous, water, protein), and reduced digestion and
absorption capabilities.
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Document Summary

Some of the major functions of the alimentary tract include digestion, absorption, elimination, and defence. Characteristic of the upper alimentary tract is a stratified squamous epithelium (flattened epithelial cells) variable in terms of thickness and permeability. A chaotropic agent denatures macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Some notable agents that can affect the alimentary tract include acids, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, heavy metals (lead, mercury, etc. Trichothecene mycotoxins (a toxic secondary metabolite produced by the organisms of the fungi kingdom like molds) are powerful inhibitors of protein synthesis. This is done by interaction with the ribosomes structures within the cell responsible for protein synthesis. These mycotoxins can cause rapid irritation to the skin or the intestinal mucosa upon contact. They can cause lesions in the digestive tract. T-2 toxin is known as the most toxic trichothecene. T-2 toxins have the capability to inhibit eukaryotic protein synthesis as well as induce apoptosis.

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