January 16, 2013
o Refers to the social constructed roles, behaviours, activities and attributes that relate to
understandings of masculinity and femininity in any given society
- Gender Performativity
o Gender is achieved through reiterated acting.
o Representation can be understood as the medium or channel through meaning is
o Not limited to those in authority positions
o Works through complex webs of relationships among individuals which resources,
expectations, and obligations are socially defined and given meaning.
- B. hooks – “feminism is a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression”
- To stand for; symbolize
- To indicate or communicate by signs or symbols
Milestone and Meyer
- This article allows us to start thinking about gender and popular culture in an academic way.
o They discuss how gender is produced, represented and consumed wthin popular
o They argue that these processes help to create and inform how we come to understand
o Raymon Williams (1983) argued that there are 3 meanings of the world culture
It can refer to:
Intellectual, spiritual and aesthetic development
A particular way of life of a group or historical period
Texts and practices which produce meaning
According to John Storey (1993) the notion of popular culture relates closely to
William’s 2 and 3 meanings. Popular Culture
o When we discuss ‘texts’ in relation to popular culture, it not only refers to written or
spoken words but to any aspect of culture whose predominant purpose is to signify and
- Milestone and Meyer
o The term popular implies that popular culture is something consumed, liked and/or
practiced by many people.
o Some argue that there is a difference in quality between ‘high culture’