ZOO 2090 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Interatrial Septum, Aorta, Lungless Salamander

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Typically, anuran larvae have external gills only briefly after hatching. They are internalized as part of their buccal pump feeding mechanism used for filter feeding. Low keratinization of the skin is required for efficient gas exchange(cid:198)but low keratinization. = water loss in air: water or moisture needed to maintain integument, also need blood capillaries close to surface of exchange and increased surface area, can increase surface area in different ways. Tetrapod lungs: generally: paired, high surface-to-volume ratio, joining the gut by the trachea. There is a trend towards the increased compartmentalization associated with increased body size and metabolic rate. Inhaled air is divided into lungs and posterior air sacs, the latter perfuses the lungs during the first exhalation. Second inhalation similar, but pushes air in the lungs into the anterior air sacs, which is vented out during second exhalation. Special adaptations in bird lungs: unidirectional airflow, cross-current exchange.

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