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Lecture

Developmental Biology: Lectures Notes #1-7 Inclusive

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Department
Zoology
Course
ZOO 2090
Professor
Roy Danzmann
Semester
Winter

Description
Developmental Biology Midterm ReviewLecture 1Differentiation generation of cellular diversityMorphogenesis growth and organization of biological form cells from different layers interact to form tissues and organsGrowth regulation of cell divisionReproduction fusion of gametes fertilizationKnockout mice mice in which expression of one gene is repressed providing models of human disordersFertilization fusion of two haploid gametes sperm and egg triggers DNA and protein synthesis and metabolic rateZygote fertilized eggCleavage series of rapid cell divisionsBlastula Hollow sphere of cells called blastomeres produced during development of embryo by repeated cleavage of egg No change in size cells become smaller as cytoplasm is divided into cellsUnequal cleavage micromeres mesomeres macromeresBlastocoel is a fluid filled cavity within the blastulaGastrulation beginning of differentiation migration of cellsEndoderm inner layerMesoderm middle layer ex DermisEctoderm outer layer ex epidermisBlastopore located at the vegetal pole future anus mouth is at animal poleArchenteron future gutLarve free living immature form of an animal which transforms into the adult via metamorphosisMetamorphosis occurs in amphibians insects and marine invertebrate groups transition between larval and adult Lecture 2 Germ cells give rise to gametes through the process of gametogenesisSomatic cells give rise to other structures of the bodyNeotomy paedomorphosis sexual maturity in juvenile or larval stage but at the same age as an ancestral formProgenesis secual maturity in juvenile or larval stage but at a different age then the ancestral formIndirect development development from egg to adult from occurs through intermediate paheses in which the animals are different morphologically ecologically etc from the adult any development which involves a larval stage ex frogs and sea urchinsMetamorphosis in sea urchins results in transfer from plankton to benthosMetamorphosis in frogs results in transfer from aquatic to terrestrial existence ReplicationDNA TranscriptionRNARNA processing mRNATranslationProteinDNAencodes all information necessary for cellular functions RNA made from a DNA template and functions in protein synthesis proteins are translated by messenger RNA and carry out cellular functionsNucleosome DNA wrapped around 8 histones which are negatively charged proteins in which DNA is attracted toPloidy number of homologous sets of chromosomes in a cell haploid1 set diploid2 setsHuman Karyotype 22 pairs of autosomes and 2 sex chromosomesAllele different molecular forms of a geneHomozygous same allele on both chromosomesHeterozygous different alleles on chromosome pairsDNA replication DNA strands separate and each strand serves as a template As complementary strands are synthesized 2 identical DNA molecules are producedMitosis chromosomal duplication separation of sister chromatids Mitosis occurs in somatic cells and results in 2 identical daughter cells diploiddiploidContractile ring microfilaments made of actinMicrotubules filaments made of tubulinCentriole cell organelle made of microtubulesMeiosis occurs during gamete production Two consecutive rounds of cell division Separation of homologous chromosome pairs and chromosome rearrangementMeiosis I followed by separation of chromatids Meiosis II diploidhaploid no DNA replication occurs in Meiosis IIRecombination crossing over recombination between homologous chromosomesOogenesis formation of female gamete egg via meiosisSpermatogenesis formation of male gamete sperm via meiosisGerm Cell Formation arise from primordial germ cells Vegetal region of frog zygote contains the determinants for germ cell formation Germ Plasm gives rise to germ cells Migrates from vegetal pole into genital ridgeChromosome diminution only fraction of the chromosome in the animal derived blastomere survives in other words genes are lost Chromosomes are kept intact only in cells destined to become germ cellsvegetal cellsCharacteristics of Early developing PGC Gene expression is suppressedPGC does not express a large number of genes
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