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University of Guelph
ZOO 2700
Shoshanah Jacobs

Lab 1 Key Terms Protozoa  Euglenozoa Euglena - Pellicle: Skeletal Structure consisting of plasma membrane and underlying cytoskeleton - Fusiform: Shape of the organism - Locomotory Flagellum: Primary flagellum at anterior end. Undulates to provide propulsive force for locomotion - “Euglenoid Motion”: Curious motion that involves changing in the pellicle and shape of the cell - Metaboly: The irregular changes in cell shape are referred to as this. (cytoplasm moves to change the shape) - Phototaxic: Therefore orients light using Stigma which contains pigments that give it its red orange colour - Contractile Vesicle: small and inconspicuous, located to ones side of reservoir. Function is osmoregulatory, ridding the cells of excess water. - Chloroplasts - Pyrenoids: associated with chloroplasts and stored as granules in cytoplasm - Nucleus  Chlorophyta Haematococcus - Cellulose Capsule: Body is enclosed in this clear cellulose capsule - Pyrenoid: seen as pale circles with darker centers - Nucleus - Isogametes: Produced by miotic division in sexual reproduction Volvox - Cystoplasmic Strands: The way the cells are interconnected and therefore form a hollow colony filled with gelatinous material - Daughter Colonies: Reproduction is Asexual. Several cells at posterior end of the parent colony (Gonidia) move to the center to undergo fission to form Plakea - Plakea: A hollow ball of cells in which flagellated ends of cells are internal. Plakea exerts to then form daughter colony (with flagella on the outside) - Anisogametes: Parent colonies are unequal in size therefore becoming either eggs or sperm packets. - Male Microgametes: encased in a packet with numerous packets formed into a sphere - Macrogametes: larger and female - Zygote: Secretes tough outer spiny wall  Kinetoplastida Trypanosoma (parasitic, one flagellum, undulating membrane) - Sleeping Sickness or Chaga’s Disease - They live in blood of their vertebrate host and are consumed in the blood meals of their insect vectors, the tsetse fly - Flagellum: arrises from the anterior end of cell but is directed posteriorly (trails from posterior end - Undulating Membrane - Kinetoplast: Anterior end - Nucleus  Axostylata Trichonympha - Flagella: numerous originating near cone shaped anterior end - Rostral Cap*: numerous flagella emerge from rostral cap - Nucleus: anterior - Wood Particles: due to being found in termite gut (wood contained in food vacuoles)  Alveolata (contains three taxa; dinoflagellata, ciliophora, apicomplexa)  Dinoflagellata Ceratium - Cingulum: deep equatorial cingulum accommodates the transverse flagellum - Nucleus: center  Ciliophora Paramecium - Nuclei: two types; larger vegetative macronucleus and a smaller generative micronucleus - Pellicle: with associative ciliature, semi rigid - Cytosome: permanent mouth, fixed location where food vacuoles form, posterior end - Cilia: well-coordinated locomotory apparatus in longitudinal rows, with more than two cilia per cell. Cilia have same basic structure as flagella but beat in a different way - Effective Stoke: Stiff rapidly sweeping movement in one direction - Recovery Stoke: slower, highly flexed movement in opposite direction - Metachronal Waves: from the beating cilia. Cilia at one end begins to beat and passes the beating down the line - Trichocysts: Complex pellicles include alveoli which include trichocysts which can be discharged from the surface for defense or to assist in prey capture. - Contractile Vacuoles - Avoidance Reaction: the organism can reverse its ciliary beats to go backwards - The blunter end in anterior and the pointy end of the organism is posterior - Somatic Ciliature: consists of cilia that covers the body surface in oblique rows or kineties - Each cilium is a part of a kinety or row - Oral Groove: on one side of the middle if the cell, entrance faces anteriorly and the cytosome is located within it near the posterior end Vorticella - Stalk is attached to a bell shaped cell body - Spasmoneme: a longitudinal bundle of contractile fibers - Peristome: the large distal end of the bell - Peristomal Cilia: The peristome supports an elaborate oral ciliature consisting of two peripheral rings of peristomal cilia. These create currents more food into the buccal cavity - Buccal Cavity: opening on one side of the disc - Macronucleus: an elongate rod bent into a C - Contractile Vacuole: visible in cytoplasm between macronucleus and buccal cavity  Apicomplexa Plasmodium - Being a parasite requires a host - Sporogony and Schizogony increase the parasite numbers (malaria life cycle) - Gametogony: produces the gametes in the vertebrate host and once consumed by the mosquito they combine to form the zygote. - Larval Amplification Shizogony: increases in number and produce cells filled with merozoites, the products of shizogony. - Nuclei: visible under x400 - When merozoites don’t invade new blood cells they instead differentiate into one of two gametocytes or gametogony. - Zygote forms an oocyte which protects it from the digestive environment of mosquito gut - Sporogony: results in large numbers of sporozoites being released into the body cavity and eventually penetrate the mosquito salivary glands and cycle repeats Amoeboid Protozoa  Amoebozoa Ameoba - Cytoplasm: enclosed in simple cell membrane - Lobopodia: thick blunt pseudopodia (may appear at any location on surface of cell) - Nucleus center - Contractile Vacuole: located at trailing end of cell - Food Vacuoles: spherical and various in size Arcella - Test: A shell that the entire cell can be withdrawn into - Plyome: the opening to the test, in the center of the lower surface. - Pseudopodia: slender and sometimes branched extensions that extend through plyome - Contractile Vesicles: eliminate water - Nuclei: two, usually on opposite sides of cell  Forminifera Globigerina - Locules: chambers of its calcareous shell are spheres of increasing size arranged in a spiral - Aperture: largest locule has the aperture (largest is the youngest as well)  Actinopodia Radiolarians - Axopodia: stiffness due to core microtubules - Test: body protected by silica test - Radolarian Strews: Formed from discarded tests - Microtubule: Internal supporting rod - Pores: Conspicuous pores in the skeletons through which the microtubular cores of the axopodia pass. Lab 2 Key Terms Metazoa  Ctenophora Pleurobrachia Pileus (comb jelly) - Oral and Aboral Poles - Oral-Aboral Axis: is the axis of symmetry around which is arrayed the biradial symmetry characteristics - Comb rows: (8) arranged like meridians or lines of longitude on the surfaces of the sphere - Ctene: fused cilia forms a plate, each plate functions as a paddle and is known as ctene - Tenticle: single tentacle arises from each large opaque tentacle bulb. - Colloblasts: unique to this group, release mucus rather than toxins when tentacle is discharged. (used when capturing prey to stick to food and then bring to mouth) - Aboral Organ (apical organ): can be seen as small spot at aboral pole. Center of gravity detection and control of comb rows - Calcareous Statolith: rests on four tufts of balancing cilia. Also has to do with balancing and therefore changing beating pattern of cilia  Porifera - Asconoid: interior water space/atrium is a simple sac, large and unpartitioned. Various incurrent canals through which water passes into the flagellated chambers; excurrent canals lead out of these chambers to the osculum. Incresed complexity = increased choanocyte layer and consequently and increase in size - Syconoid: periphery of the atrium is divided into numerous small flagellated chambers with increased surface area for choanocytes. - Leuconoid: atrium is replaced by proliferation of mesohyl and a complex network of water channels and flagellated chambers.  Calcarea Leucosolenia - Oscular tubes: 1-2mm in diameter - Osculum: at the end of the oscular tubes is this opening - Atrium: hollow interior of the stolons and the oscular tubes - Mesohyl: thin walls composed of this. Pinacoderm on the outside and choanoderm on the inside. - Spicules: (calcareous) project from sponge surface. - Triaxons: with three sharp rays - Monoaxons: with a single pointed shaft - Tetraxon: (occasional) four points Sycon - Buds: young individuals growing from larger individuals - Osculum at apical end surrounded by a colar of very large protruding monaxon spicules - Atrium - Body walls - Choanocyte Chambers: flagellated chambers - Incurrent canals: inhalant canals with intervening mesohyl - Choanocytes: flagellated chambers and open to the atrium via pores called apopyles - Ostia: The connection between the incurrent canals and the outside - They are cross fertilizing hermaphrodites  Demospongiae Spongilla (Freshwater sponges) - Gemmules: found at the base of these encrusting colonies and are asexually produced, overwintering, bodies. - Gemmoscleres: thick outer layer of specialized spicules - Spongin: thinner layer inside that - Micropyle: small plugged opening at one end of the spherical gemmule Cliona  Hexactinellida Eupectella - Osculum: large  Cnidaria - Cnidocytes: the defining feature; the possession of stinging cells.  Anthozoa Metridium Senile (anenomes) - Column: body of a typical anemone is usually cylindrical - Tentacles: attached to body is a crown of tentacles - Disc: at the end of each column - Aboral end: the basal attached end of the column - Pedal Disc: terminating here - Oral end: free in the water and terminates in the oral disc. - Mouth: elongate slit in the center of the oral disc - Siphonoglyphs: there are expansions at the end of the oral disc which are vertical ciliated grooves called siphonoglyphs. (1-3) - Pharynx: mouth opens into this short flattened tube. Siphonoglyphs are at opposite edges of the flat pharynx - Cinclides: small blisterlike openings scattered about the lower part of the colomn. Used to expel ling thread-like actonia (has cnidocytes) - Biradial Symmetry Inside this organism (dissection) - Coelenteron: the space between the pharynx and the larger tube of the body wall - Septa: sheets of connecting tissue - Incomplete Septa - Septal Filament: follow complete septum upward from pedal disk until free edge becomes heavily convoluted - Acontium: where convolutions become long free filaments - Retractor Muscle: thin longitudinal muscle band of muscle that runs length of septum from oral to pedal disc. - Gonads: longitudinal bands of gamete producing tissue on the edges of septa. Peripheral to the septal filaments and central to the longitudinal muscles. Stony Corals ; Brain Coral Alcyonaria; Gorgonia; Sea Fan  Scyphozoa Aurelia Aurita (Moon Jelly) - Bell: large relatively flat disc - Subumbrella: the lower or oral surface of the bell bearing a mouth - Exumbrella: opposite aboral surface - Rhopalia: shallow indent at 8 separate spots. These are located within the indents between scallops (sensory structures*) - Mesoglea: thick and jellylike material found within the two epidermal layers. Makes up most of the animals mass. Connective tissue made of protein fibers and watery substance and few amoeboid cells - Oral arms of the Manubrium: for long and lacy arms located in the center - Brachial Groove: where the end of the lacy arms meet and enclose in a deep ciliated groove - Mouth: center - Brachial Tenticles: at the margins of the grooves - Marginal Tentacles: at the margin of the bell. Short tentacles which bear cnidocytes - Rhopalia: (8) - Coelenteron: (the gut) elaborate arrangement of chambers and channels lined by ciliated gastrodermis and extending through mesoglea and opening to the exterior via mouth - Mouth - Stomach - Gastric Pouches: (4) open from the sides of the stomach and are sites of extracellular digestion - Gastric Filaments: covered in cnidocytes and immobilize small prey which are still alive when swept into digestive system - Adradial: canals that lead directly from gastric pouch to ring canal - Periradial: canals that connect gastric pouch to other parts of gastrovascular system - Interradial: canals that connect the other parts of the gastrovascular canals to the ring canal - Gonad: each gastric pouch contains a gonad (shaped like horseshoe) Life Cycle of the Aurelia - Medusa Generation: large, sexual, free living, pelagic motile - Polyp Generation: Asexual, sessile, benthic and inconspicuous Planula Larva (a) - Polyp Scyphistoma (b) - Mouth: central - Tenticles: surround mouth (16) Strobila (c) - Looks like a pinecone (goes through strobilation) Ephyra (d) - Lappets: (8) projections out of the organism that make it look like a paint splatter (they are forked)  Hydrozoa Obelia - Stolon: creeping and root like. Serves as an anchor and base for the entire colony (polyp phase) - Polyps - Gastrozooid: responsible for feeding - Gonozooid: responsible for reproduction, asexual budding - Periderm: transparent, chitinous exoskeleton that encloses the stems stolons and polyps - Coenosarc: living tissue. Consisting of outer nonciliated epidermis and inner ciliated gastrodermis with the thin acellular mesoglea in between. - Coelenteron: hollow interior Gastrozooids - Hydranth: this structures “coenosarc”, which bears a distal end of single circled tenticles - Batteries: clusters of cnidocytes that look like bumps on tenticles - Manubrium: center of the tenticles which bears mouth Gonozooids - Gonotheca: elongate cylinder of perisarc. Is open distally to the sea - Blastostyle: the gonotheca encloses a small cylinder of coenosarc - Medusa Buds: produced asexually Gonionemus - Bell - Aboral surface - Oral Surface - Radial Canals (4) - Ring Canal: run around bell perimeter - Gonads: closely associated with radial canals - Tentacles (60-80) - Tenticular bulbs (attatchment) - Suckers Physalia - Pneumatophore: gas filled and allow flotation - Gastrozooids have mouths - Dactylozooids mouthless - Gonophores: medusa buds that never detach to become free swimming Lab 3 Key Terms  Rotifera Philodena - Eutelic: consistent number of cells - Corona: ciliary ring near anterior end to generate feeding and locomotory current - Parthenogenesis: (production of females) and only certain times males (tiny) are produced - Cryptobiosis: once fertilized egg can stay dormant for long time and resist harsh extreme environment. - Head, Trunk and Foot - Annuli: body is encircled in 16 circumferential rins - Mouth - Spurs: (2) which have 4 small sticky toes - Pharynx - Mastax: jaw apparatus embedded in powerful muscular bulb - Trophi: composes the mastax (cuticular elements) - Stomach - Germovitellaria: two large lateral gonads located beside the stomach in the trunk  Bryozoa Pectinatella - Lophophore: composed of two rows of ciliated tentacles - Mouth: lies in the bend of the lophophore - Digestive system - Gut: U shaped with gut and anus located anteriorly - Pharynx - Stomach - Rectum ascends to anus - Statoblasts produced asexually Bugula Neritina - Autozooids: colony composed of zooids arranged in double branching rows - Zooecium: transparent nonliving secreted stuff that the zooid inhabits in - Ooecia: the zooids hemispherical ovicells - Avicularia: defensive heterozooids shaped like the head of a raptorial bird. Specialized in discouraging predators and settling by the larvae of fouling organisms  Platyhelminthes Turbellaria Giarardia (Dugesia) Tigrina - Bilarteral Symmetry dorsoventral flattening - Head - Trunk - Auricles: lateral, ciliated, chemosensory protrusions - Ocelli: eyespots - Pharynx - Pharyngeal Cavity: pharynx is housed - Epidermis - Ciliated: on the Ventral side but not Dorsal - Secretory Vesicles/ Rhabdites: absorb water and expand to become sticky mucus. Help trap prey - Muscles - Parenchyma: mesenchymal connective tissue - Dorsoventral Muscles - Intestinal Rami and their ceca Neodermata - Endoparasites: complex lifes cycles involving many hosts - Definitive Host: inhabited by adult worm - Intermediate Host: can be more than on, but is inhabited by juvenile stages of worms Termatoda - Definitive host - Intermediate host Opisthorchis Sinensis - Oral sucker - Mouth - Ventral Sucker - Pharynx - Esphagus - Intestinal Ceca: two long unbranched tracts. (posterior to worm) - Testes in Male - Seminal Vesicle in Male - Seminal Receptacle in Female - Germarium in Female (Ovary) - Vitellaria: (2) produce yolk cells - Vitelline Duct Drain - Uterus - Eggs - Operculum: door or opening at one end of the eggshell Life Cycle - 1 Egg - 2 Miracidium - 3 Sporocyte - 4 Redia - 5 Cercaria - 6 Metacercaria - 7 Adult Schistosoma  Cercomeromorpha  Monogenea Urocleidus - Haptor: ventral sucker - Oral sucker - Pharynx Capsala  Cestoda Taenia Pisiformis (dog tapeworm) - Scolex - Rostellum with rostellar hooks: Attaches to the gut of host - Suckers (4) - Lateral Nephridial Canals (side of scolex and run down body) - Lateral Canal - Immature Proglottids Anterior end of strobila - Protandrous: male genitalia mature before female - Gravid Region: where the proglottids are longer than they are wide - Uterus - Common Genital Pore: pore located on the right or left side of the proglottid - Cirrus: penis - Testes - Vagina - Seminal Receptical - Germarium (ovary) - Vitellarium - Cysticercus: larva or bladderworm  has scolewx, suckers and rostellum Lab 4 Key Terms  Annelida - Metameres: serious of similar compartments (repetition of body units)  Ploychaeta Nereis Virens - Parapodia fleshy appendages with numerous chaetae - Bilateral Symmetry - Segments - Cuticle: coats epidermis in iridescent collagenous substance - Prostomium: the head - Mouth - Antennae (2) - Palps: larger antennae (2) - Eyes (4) - Nuchal Organs: crescent shaped sensory organs. Posterior of prostomium - Jaws - Peristomium: complete ring immediately posterior to the prostomium - Tentacular Cirri: (4) whip like sensory tenticular cirri Parapodium components - Rami: (2) major branches / Biramous - Acicula: support rods (2) internal black rods. - Pygidium: posterior end of the worm - Tail - Anal Cirri - Anus Tomopteris - Pinnules: chaetae replaced by membranous pinnules - Eyes Serpula Vermicularis (Feather duster worm) Amphitrite - Tagmatization being divided into head trunk and tail - Head Tagma: formed of a fused prostomium and peristomium - Tenticles: numerous on prostomium (2 lobes) - Trunk Tagma - Branching Gills - Notopodia : with prominent chaetae - Neuropodia: appear as elongate shallow grooves with muscular ridges - Crochets: short chaetae - Tail tagma Trochophore Larva - Prototroch: where locomotory cilia are found  Clitellata Olgliochaeta Lumbricus Terrestris - Dorsum: dark and rounded while the Venter is pale and slightly flattened - Dorsal blood vessel seen through body wall - Clitellum: band of thick secretory epithelium - Segement - Peristomium: encircles the ventral mouth - Prostomium: Anterior to the peristomium is small dorsal lobe - Pygidium - Anus - Chaetae (8) on each segement - Lateral chaetae - Ventral Chaetae - Nephridiopore: dorsal and anterior to chaetae is a small opening. (kidney) - Male gonopores little holes along body - Female gonopres: little holes along body - Coelomic pore: all segements posterior to 12. Keeps animal moist!! Internal Anatomy - Body wall - Cuticle: composed of collogen fibres. Thick and tough - Epidermis - Circular Muscle - Longitudinal Muscle - Coelom: open space in the body cavity - Coelomic compartments: divided into segments - Septa - Chlorogogen tissue: glycogen and lipid synthesis and storage. Bright yellow orange colour - Chaetae four pairs per segment - Chaetal sac each pair in a sac - Gut - Mouth - Buccal Cavity: - Pharynx - Radial muscles run from pharynx to body wall - Esophagus - Esophageal Pouches esophagus expands to become wider into these pouches - Calciferous Glands two pairs of smaller expansions off the pouches - Crop around segement 12. Large, thin walled, and bulbus - Gizzard posterior to the crop the gut becomes this - Foregut = buccal cavity, pharynx, esophagus, crop and gizzard - Intestine/ midgut - Saccular intestine - Anus - Ventral blood vessel - Hearts (5) - Brain - cerebral ganglia - cerebral commissure - Circumpharyngeal connective - Ventral Nerve cord - Metaniphridia: excretory - Seminal Vesicle (male) - Sperm resovoirs (males) - Seminal recepticles (females) Hirudinomorpha Haemopis Marmorata (Leeches) - Posterior sucker - Anterior sucker - Preoral chamber interior of the anterior sucker - Mouth - Head - Annuli: superficially subdivided by circumferential rings into false segments - Eyes - Male gonopore segment 11 - Female gonopore segment 12 - Indirect sperm transfer therefore eggs fertilized internally Lab 5 Key Terms  Brachiopoda Articulata Terebratella - Shell – calcareous, hard and rigid - Valves – two parts = bivalve - Dorsal Valve (brachial valve) – smaller and flatter , acts like lid, supports brachia/arms of the lophophore - Ventral Valve (pedicular valve) – larger and deeper, contains most of the body, contains larger posterior opening = aperture - Gape – opening formed between valves - Radial Grooves – ridges on shell - Growth Ridges – mark periods of interrupted growth - Pedicle – fleshy and tough attachment organ  Mollusca - Foot - Head - Radula – flexible file that consist of many small chitinous teeth - Mantle - dorsal Eumollusca Polyplacophora Katharina - Valves/plates – 8 valves - Mantle - Girdle – thickened mantle. Covered in thick chitinous cuticle - Head - Radula - Magnetite – the metallic layer that covers the teeth of the radula - Foot - Mantle cavity - Shell - Gills - Anus - - One gonad (right) - Single gill - Atrium - Nephridium - Siphon – used to draw water into mantle cavity - Proboscis – contains radula, allows snail to probe unreachable areas and tear flesh of its victims - Lung Nudibranchs (seas slugs) - Lung - Pneumostome - opening and closing on the snails right side - Shells  Cephalopoda Lolliguncula Brevis - Body - Head - Neck - Funnel (locomotion) – derived from foot of ancestor - Visceral hump - long narrow cone that forms remainder of the body - Mantle – thick muscular walls (encloses large mantle cavity and visceral mass) - Mantle Cavity - Visceral Mass (organs) - Lateral fins - Skirt – free anterior margins of the mantle - Skeletal Points – 3 short and acute - Exhalent Siphon – water exits the mantle cavity - Gills - Head - Appendages - 10, suckered, flexible, arms/tenticles - Arms – 8 - Tenticles – 2 (longer) – contractile/ vary in length - Suckers – on 8 arms, two rows, with deep muscular cup with a toothed, chitinous ring for reinforcement - Club – at the end of tentacle with 4 rows of suckers - Pedicle – cup attaches to the arm by this - Piston – disk shaped. Contraction of pedicle withdraws piston creating suction - Mouth - Jaw - Beak - Eyes - Olfactory Crest – chemosensory epithelium - Epidermis - Chromatophores – speckled dots on the skin of the creature - Muscle – circular and radial fibers - Pen – dorsal, internal, chitinous shell. Clear, firm, and cartilage like, for structure - Middorsal process - shaft of the feather points anteriorly and its tip of the mantle skirt are this - Funnel retractor muscles – look like white cord, direct jet of water, therefore controlling where squid swims - Cephalic retractor muscles – smaller - Gills – featherlike - Branchial Heart - at the base of each gill is a small oval heart that supply gills with unoxygenated blood. - Systemic heart – supplies rest of the body - Females = two large white oval nidamental gland. Ovary (one) - Males = spermatophoral glands (single white one). Spermatophores = small white sticks that may be visible within the glands. Testis = bright white flat ovoid mass. Penis = lies left of the rectum. Male gonopore = at tip of the penis - Stomach – immediately posterior to right branchial heart - Cecum – opens from medial side and extends posteriorly - Digestive gland – (liver) lies dorsally on the midline, between funnel retractor muscles. Off white organ. - Ink Sac – metallic, lying beside rectum - Buccal Mass – encase the jaws
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