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Lecture 16

ANTH 1210 Lecture 16: Lecture 16

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University of Manitoba
ANTH 1210
Haskel J.Greenfield

o982 Species: Largest population (Mendelian): can be subdivided into smaller biological populations Individuals able to reproduce and produce fertile offspring (who can also reproduce) Demes: Smallest populations Groups of genetically similar individuals living in the same geographic area, and interbreeding to a large extent only with other members of the same deme Phenotypic Variation within Populations: Two sources: variation in genotypes in populations and different environmental pressures (differently affects phenotypes) Natural selection: select against homozygotes (ex: sickle cell anemia) Continuous variation: expresses itself as a smooth gradient between two extremes (normal bell shape curve) gradual change for one form to another (height, weight, skin colour) Discontinuous variation: population divided into several, discrete and obvious groups without intermediaries (ex: human blood types, gender no variation between them) Continuous variation involve polygenic traits Discontinuous variation cause by monogenic traits (one gene) Evolution: Involved relatively minor changes in the gene pool of a population (from one generation to the next) Biological evolution is change (increase, decrease, appear, disappear) in gene frequencies Subject to change by mutation and recombination Forces of evolutionary change: Mutation Spontaneous change in gene frequencies Ultimate source: new alleles and gene combinations Provided a steady flow of new genetic material for evolutionary change All other processes dependant upon it Natural selection Does not produce genetic change
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