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Lecture 27

ANTH 1210 Lecture 27: Lecture 27

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ANTH 1210
Haskel J.Greenfield

OS98 Run bipedally on group and top of branches Anatomy designed for hanging (trunk and limbs) Anatomical features: long and powerful arms, loss of external tail for balancing Arms are longer than legs and trunk combined Looklike hands with long, curved bones Advantage: can reach upper canopy of trees Exploit new niche KnuckleWalkers Gorilla, Chimps and Orangutans Advantage: very effective locomotion in dense jungles, dont get tangled in underbrush Habitual Biped Ex: humans Only living primate which always walks bipedally Normally stand and walks on 2 feet Other species will walk bipedally, but they all have an external tail, which we dont have for balance (birds, dinosaurs) No other mammals have this particular kind of alternative walking Anatomical features: erect spine, freeing of hands for manipulation, weight falls on hind limbs (legs) Pelvis and legs brought beneath trunk Ilium is shortened Increase length of hind limbs Increased thickness of hind limb bones Flat feet as consequence of being bipedal Loses grasping ability, not opposable Humans did not pass through a knucklewalking stage Human line diverged from ape line before knucklewalking development Digestive System: How and what an animal eats How it feeds itself This determines how natural selection will affect it Most primates are omnivorous Wide econiche and habitat range Fruits, plants, meat, insects, etc Some are more specialized than others (narrow econiche and habitat range) Ex: leaf eating colobus monkey
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