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Lecture 29

ANTH 1210 Lecture 29: Lecture 29

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University of Manitoba
ANTH 1210
Haskel J.Greenfield

o982 Group consists of: single adult male, several adult females, and immature offspring Have own territory Lots of sexual dimorphism Complementary groups: all male groups (bachelor) Bachelors wander until can depose a dominant male in harem Multimale group Group size (100 or more individuals) Composition (all ages and sexes) Extremely complex social structure Males tend to dominate Males have own dominance and submission hierarchy Greater dominance has greater access to females (genes passed down, many offspring) Groups tend to be dominated by single large male Important evolutionary development (males learn to live together and cooperate for defense and develop new means of directing aggressive behaviour into less then fatal encounters) Development of submissive male behaviour (allow lower ranking males) Allows lower ranking males to remain in group, occasionally have access to females and increase their fitness (need to get genes into next generation) When on move males form defensive perimeter and females in middle to protect young Environments: dangerous, large predators, mostly terrestrial 1 male group within a multimale group More complex form of social organization Every male has a harem of adult females Living together, but in small groups within by themselves Males trying to attract females to form a harem from other groups Not hierarchy among males (dont fight each other) Male fitness (no longer determined by ability to fight, determined by ability to attract and hold a large group of females) Allows very strong malefemale relationships and multimale relationships (important for primate evolution) Several groups may participate in foraging for food (permits more effective exploitation of environment, cooperation among different harems) Not common (Ethiopia) Chimpanzee Social Behaviour Closest to humans
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