chapter 30.docx

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Department
Biochem. and Medical Genetics
Course
BGEN 3020
Professor
Jason Leboe- Mcgowan
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 30 Problems related to problems related to oxidative pathway a. Most imp: cytochrome oxidase (last enzyme before it transfers the electrons to O 2. Remember the 3 C’s – cytochrome oxidase, cyanide, CO all inhibit cytochrome oxidase. Therefore 3 things for CO – (1) decrease in O sa2 (hypoxia), (2) left shifts (so, what little you carry, you can’t release), and (3) if you were able to release it, it blocks cytochrome oxidase, so the entire system shuts down b. Uncoupling – ability for inner mito membrane to synthesize ATP. Inner mito membrane is permeable to protons. You only want protons to go through a certain pore, where ATP synthase is the base, leading to production of ATP; you don’t want random influx of protons – and that is what uncoupling agents do. Examples: dinitrylphenol (chemical for preserving wood), alcohol, salicylates. Uncoupling agents causes protons to go right through the membrane; therefore you are draining all the protons, and very little ATP being made. B/c our body is in total equilibrium with each other, rxns that produce protons increase (rxns that make NADH and FADH, these were the protons that were delivered to the electron transport system). Therefore any rxn that makes NADH and FADH that leads to proton production will rev up rxns making NADH and FADH to make more protons. With increased rate of rxns, leads to an increase in temperature; therefore, will also see HYPERTHERMIA. Complication of salicylate toxic = hyperthermia (b/c it is an uncoupling agent). Another example: alcoholic on hot day will lead to heat stroke b/c already have uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (b/c mito are already messed up). These are all the causes of tissue hypoxia (ischemia, Hb related, cyto oxidase block, uncoupling agents). Absolute key things! What happens when there is: a. resp acidosis – Hb stays same, O s2t’n decreased, partial pressure of O decr2ased (O sat 2 decreased b/c pO is2decreased) b. anemia – only Hb is affected (normal O sat2n and pO ) 2 c. CO/methemoglobin – Hb normal, O sat’n decreased, pO normal 2 2 Rx CO – 100% O ; 2ethemo – IV methaline blue (DOC) or vit C (ascorbic acid) C. Decreased of ATP (as a result of tissue hypoxia) 1. Most imp: have to go into anaerobic glycolysis; end product is lactic acid (pyruvate is converted to lactate b/c of increased NADH); need to make NAD, so that the NAD can feedback into the glycolytic cycle to make 2 more ATP. Why do we ha
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