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Lecture 3

BIOL 1000 Lecture 3: Lecture 3

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1000
Kevin G.Scott

OS82 Water is the solvent of life Solution = a liquid consisting of a uniform mixture of 2 or more substances  Solvent = the dissolving agent Solute = substance that gets dissolved Aqueous solution = solution with water as the solvent  The chemistry of life is sensitive to acidic and basic environments + - When water molecules break apart they form hydrogen ions (H ) and hydroxide ions (OH ) o  Very reactive ions Acid = a compound that donates hydrogen ions to solutions  Base = compound that accepts -ydrogen ions and remov+s the from solution (alkaline solutions)  o NaOH (lye), OH combines with H to form H O2 o More basic a solution is, the higher to OH concentration  pH scale = describes how acidic/basic a solution is (“potential of hydrogen”) o Ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic) + Each unit increase represents a 10 fold change in concentration of H in a solution pH of 7 is neutral (equal amounts of either ion) Human blood plasma has pH of 7.4  Buffer = a substance that minimizes changes in pH Accepts H when in excess and donates H when depleted Chapter 3: The Compounds of Cells Life’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon Almost all molecules made by a cell are composed of carbon (and other elements)  Organic compounds = carbon-based molecules Carbon atom has 4
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