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Lecture 9

BIOL 1000 Lecture 9: Lecture 9

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University of Manitoba
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1000
Kevin G.Scott

OS98 Chapter 4: Cellular Structure The small size of cells related to the need to exchange materials across the plasma membrane  Most cells are microscopic (unable to be seen without a microscope) Maximum cell size is influenced by geometry Need a surface area large enough to service the volume of the cell Large cells have greater surface area than small cells But, much less surface area relative to volume than small cells Surface-to-volume ratio of a cell can affect its function Plasma membrane = forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and its surroundings  Phospholipids contain 2 distinct regions Head with a negatively charged phosphate groups (hydrophilic head faces outwards) 2 non-polar fatty acids (hydrophobic tails face inwards) Form a 2-layer sheet “phospholipid bilayer” Non-polar molecules (O , CO ) c2n easi2y move along hydrophobic inner membrane of phospholipid bilayer  Proteins form channels inside that shield ions and polar molecules from passing Other proteins act as pumps, transporting molecules in and out of the cell  Prokaryotic cells are structurally simpler than eukaryotic cells Bacteria and archaea consist of prokaryotic cells Prokaryote means “before nucleus” Evolved before eukaryotic cells Structurally simpler All other forms of life (protists, fungi, plants, animals) are made of eukaryotic cells  H
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