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Lecture 6

BIOL 1000 Lecture 6: Lecture 6

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1000
Kevin G.Scott

o|82 = Chemical catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in cells Structural proteins = found in hair and fibres that make up tendons and ligaments  Contractile proteins = found packed inside muscle cells Defensive proteins – e.g. immune system antibodies Signal proteins – e.g. hormones and other chemical messengers  Receptor proteins = built into cell membranes, transmit signals into cells  Transport proteins – e.g. hemoglobin delivers O to working mu2cles & tissues Storage proteins – e.g. ovalbumin (found in egg white) source of amino acids for developing embryos   Function of protein depends on specific shape Lysosome – enzyme found in sweat/tears/saliva, one long polypeptide folded into a globular shape Most enzymes and other proteins are globular in shape Structural proteins are typically long and thin, called fibrous proteins Proteins must bind to other molecules to function Denaturation = polypeptide chains unravel, losing their specific shape and function Can be due to changes in salt concentration and pH, excessive heat A protein’s shape depends on four levels of structure Primary structure = a protein’s unique sequence of amino acids Determined by inherited genetic information  Protein cannot perform designated function if it is not in its primary structure Secondary structure = parts of a polypeptide coil/fold into a local pattern Results in a structure called ‘alpha helix’, or ‘beta-pleated sheet’ Both patterns maintained by hydrogen bon
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