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Lecture 7

BIOL 1000 Lecture 7: Lecture 7

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1000
Kevin G.Scott

OS98 All genetic information is written as a 4 letter alphabet RNA contains adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil (instead of thymine)  Polynucleotide = polymer made of nucleotides Includes a repeating sugar-phosphate backbone (bases are not part of backbone) RNA consists of a single polynucleotide strand  DNA is a double helix = 2 polynucleotides wrapped around each other Nitrogenous bases protrude from the 2 sugar-phosphate backbones, & pair in the centre A always pairs with T, C always pairs with G 2 DNA chains are held together by hydrogen bonds Bonds are weak on their own, but collectively they zip the 2 strands together Most DNA molecules have thousands/millions of base pairs 2 strands of DNA are said to be complementary (due to base pairing rules) Structure of DNA accounts for its function (transmitting genetic info) Fats are lipids that are mostly energy-storage molecules Lipids = compound that does not mix well with water, consist mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms  linked by nonpolar covalent bonds Hydrophobic = water-fearing (oil in salad dressing separates from the vinegar)  Vary in structure and function 3 main types of lipids: fats, phospholipids, and steroids Fat = a large lipid made form 2 kinds of smaller molecules (aka triglyceride) Glycerol and fatty acids o Glycerol = alcohol with 3 carbons, each attached to a hydroxyl group o Fatty acid = consists of a carboxyl group (gives the name acid), and a hydrocarbon chain 16-
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