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Lecture 4

BIOL 1000 Lecture 4: Lecture 4

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1000
Kevin G.Scott

OS98 Building block of proteins are called amino acids (contain amino & carboxyl group) 2- Phosphate group (-OPO 3 ) = phosphorus atom bonded to 4 oxygen atoms Usually ionized and attached to carbon skeleton by one oxygen atom o Compounds w/ are called organic phosphates o Often involved in energy transfer (ATP) Methylgroup(-CH )=carbon3ondedto3hydrogens o Called methyl compounds o Affects gene expression when added to DNA Cells make a huge number of large molecules form a limited set of small molecules 4 main classes of molecules: 1) Carbohydrates, 2) Proteins, 3) Nucleic acids, 4) Lipids Macromolecules = gigantic in size, includes carbs, proteins, and nucleic acids Polymers = a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar building blocks strung together Chains of smaller molecules that make up macromolecules Monomers = building blocks of polymers  Dehydration reaction = a reaction that removes a molecule of water in order to link monomers  together to form polymers  An unlinked monomer has a Hydrogen atom at one end and a hydroxyl group at the other For each monomer added to a polymer chain, one water molecule is released Become connected by a covalent bond Hydrolysis = “to break with water”, process by which the bond between monomers is broken by the  addition of a water molecule Hydroxyl group from water attaches to one monomer, and hydrogen attaches to the other Lactose int
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