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Lecture 5

BIOL 1000 Lecture 5: Lecture 5

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University of Manitoba
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1000
Kevin G.Scott

o982 o Humans can break down plant starch via hydrolysis o High starch content in: potatoes & grains (wheat/corn/rice) Glycogen = storage polysaccharide in animals, made of glucose  o More branched than starch o Most glycogen is stored in liver and muscles cells (hydrolyze glycogen into glucose when needed)  Cellulose = most abundant organic compound on Earth, component of the tough wall that encloses a plan cell o Also made up of glucose, linked together in a different way  o Cellulose molecules are joined by hydrogen bonds & are parallel to each other, forming cable-like microfibrils  o Most animals/humans don’t have enzyme to hydrolyze cellulose o Cellulose is not a nutrient for humans  o Does contribute to digestive system health o Insoluble fibre = cellulose that passes through digestive tract and remains unchanged  Found in fresh fruits, vegetables, and grains Cellulase = enzyme found in some microorganisms that hydrolyzes cellulose Found in cows and termites (termites can produce it)  Decomposing fungi can digest cellulose Chitin = structural polysaccharide, used by insects & crustaceans to build their exoskeleton Also found in cell wall of fungi Humans use it to make surgical thread that decomposes after a wound heals Almost all carbohydrates are hydrophili
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