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Lecture 20

BIOL 1000 Lecture 20: Lecture 20

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1000
Kevin G.Scott

o982 ATP drives all 3 types of work  Chemical – phosphorylation of reactants provides energy to drive the endergonic synthesis of  products Mechanical – transfer of phosphate groups to special motor proteins in muscle cells causes the proteins to change shape and pull on protein filaments, causing the cells to contract  Transport – ATP drives the active transport of solutes across a membrane against their  concentration gradient by phosphorylating transport proteins  ATP is a renewable resource that is regenerated by cells Energy released in exergonic reactions is used to regenerate ADP to ATP (endergonic reaction) o Phosphate group is bonded to ADP  o Hydrolysis of ATP releases energy that drives endergonic reactions Few metabolic reactions would occur without the assistance of enzymes  Enzymes speed up the cell’s chemical reactions by lowering energy barriers Proteins, DNA, carbohydrates and lipids are all rich in potential energy An energy barrier must be overcome before a chemical reaction can begin Activation energy (E ) = enArgy that must be absorbed to contort/weaken bonds in reactant  molecules so that they can break down and new bonds can form o Amount of energy needed by reactant molecules to move ‘uphill’ to higher-energy/unstable state so ‘downhill’ part of reaction can occur  Barrier of E prAvents ordered molecules of cells from spontaneously breaking down One way to speed reactions is to add heat Speeds up molecules, agitates atoms so bonds break more eas
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