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Lecture 14

BIOL 1000 Lecture 14: Lecture 14

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1000
Kevin G.Scott

lc78 herbivores E.g. nicotine, caffeine, chemicals used as pharmaceutical drugs  Central vacuole = helps a plant cell grow in size by absorbing water and enlarging Also stocks vital chemicals and acts as a trash can (stores toxic waste) A review of the structures involved in manufacturing and breakdown  Structural connections – between nuclear envelope, rough ER, and smooth ER Functional connections – membranes and proteins produced by ER travel in transport vesicles to  the Golgi apparatus and on to other destinations  Some vesicles develop into lysosomes or vacuoles Other vesicles transport products to outside of cell When vesicles fuse with plasma membrane, contents are secreted from cell Their membrane is added to plasma membrane Peroxisomes = metabolic compartments that do not originate from the endomembrane system Some break down fatty acids to be used as cellular fuel o In liver, they detoxify harmful compounds (e.g. alcohol) Enzymes transfer hydrogen from various compounds to oxygen, producing H O (hydrogen 2 2 peroxide) Other enzymes convert hydrogen peroxide (toxic) to water Mitochondria harvest chemical energy from food Mitochondria = organelles that carry out cellular respiration in nearly all eukaryotic cells Convert chemical energy of foods (sugars) to the chemical energy of the mol
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