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Lecture 30

BIOL 1000 Lecture 30: Lecture 30

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University of Manitoba
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1000
Kevin G.Scott

o78P Human cells carry about 21 000 genes  A typical bacterium carries 3000 genes  Almost all genes in a eukaryotic cell are found inside the nucleus (grouped into chromosomes) Chromatin = diffuse mass of long, thin fibres, “loose state” of chromosomes Composed of equal amounts of DNA and protein molecules Too thin to be seen with a microscope  Chromatin coils up as a cell prepares to divide, forming tight/distinct chromosomes Each chromosome contains one long DNA molecule (with hundreds of genes & proteins attached to DNA)  Eukaryotic chromosome has more complex structure than prokaryotic chromosome Includes many more proteins to help maintain structure & control gene activity Human body cells tend to have 46 chromosomes  Dog body cells have 78 chromosomes Tongue fern has more than 1200 chromosomes in every cell Chromosomes are duplicated before they condense and divide  Each chromosome will exist as 2 copies = sister chromatids (identical copy of DNA molecule) Sister chromatids are joined together at the centromere = centre “waist” on the 2 chromosomes o Once separated each chromatid is called a chromosome o Daughter cells each receive a complete identical set of chromosomes A typical human dividing cell has 46 duplicated chromosomes (92 chromatids), and each of the 2 daughter cells receives 46 single chromosomes The cell cycle multiplies cells  Cell div
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