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Lecture 40

BIOL 1000 Lecture 40: Lecture 40

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University of Manitoba
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1000
Kevin G.Scott

c78  At other end of tRNA is a site where one specific kind of amino acid can attach *2 specific parts of tRNA: anticodon and amino acid attachment site Each amino acid is joined to correct tRNA by a specific enzyme 20 versions of these enzymes (1 enzyme/amino acid) Ribosomes Build Polypeptides In order to carry-out translation, a cell needs: instructions in form of mRNA molecules, tRNA to  interpret, supply of amino acids/enzymes, and ATP for energy Ribosomes = structures in the cytoplasm that position mRNA and tRNA close together and catalyze the synthesis of polypeptides  Ribosomes are made up of 2 subunits, each made up of proteins and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Ribosomes are similar in function for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but eukaryotic ribosomes are slightly larger and different in composition o Certain drugs can inactivate prokaryotic ribosomes without affection eukaryotic ones  Each ribosome has a binding site for mRNA and 2 main binding sites (P and A) for tRNA 10.13 An Initiation Codon Marks the Start of an mRNA Message  Translation is divided into same 3 phases as transcription: initiation, elongation, termination  Initiation – mRNA, tRNA bearing the first amino acid and 2 subunits of a ribosome are brought together  o mRNA molecule is longer than the genetic message it carries o Initiation process establishes where translation will begin  o 1) mRNA molecule binds to small ribosomal subunit    Initiator tRNA binds to start codon where translation will begin on the mRNA molecule   Initiator tRNA carries amino a
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