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Lecture 38

BIOL 1000 Lecture 38: Lecture 38

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1000
Kevin G.Scott

oS82 Inherited disease reflects inability to make a particular enzyme = “inborn errors of metabolism”  Function of a gene is to dictate the production of a polypeptide Genetic Information Written in Codons is Translated into Amino Acid Sequences Genes provide instructions for making specific proteins  Genes do not build proteins directly RNA acts as the bridge between DNA and protein synthesis DNA is transcribed into RNA which is then translated into a protein  DNA nitrogenous bases: A, T, C, G, RNA nitrogenous bases: A, U, C, G A typical gene consists of hundreds/thousands of nucleotides in a specific sequence Transcript = RNA molecule of 10 Called transcription because nucleic acid language of DNA is rewritten as a sequence of bases on  RNA Nucleotide bases of RNA are complimentary to that of DNA RNA is synthesized using DNA as a template Only 1 strand of DNA is transcribed = template strand  Each of the 20 amino acids is specified by a triplet order of base pairs (would result in 64 different  combinations) Sometimes more than 1 triplet will code for the same amino acid Flow of information from genes to protein is based on a triplet code  Genetic instructions for the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain are written in DNA and RNA  as a series of non-overlapping base words called codons 3 base codons in DNA transcribed into 3 base codons in RNA, RNA codons translated into amino
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