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Lecture 44

BIOL 1000 Lecture 44: Lecture 44

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University of Manitoba
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1000
Kevin G.Scott

o982 Example: measured changes in beak sizes of finches of Galapagos Islands  o These birds eat mostly small seeds o In dry years, when all seeds are short in supply, birds must eat more large seeds  o Birds with larger, stronger beaks have feeding advantage & greater reproductive success o During wet years, smaller beaks are more efficient  Another example: insects adaptation due to pesticide production Few survivors of first wave of pesticide spraying tend to be resistant and reproduce, resulting in greater proportion of resistant insects 1) Natural selection is an editing process, not a creative mechanism  2) Natural selection is contingent on time and place The Study of Fossils Provides Strong Evidence for Evolution In addition to basing theory off of evidence from artificial selection and comparisons of geographic distribution of species and different structures of species, Darwin also relied on fossil record  Fossils document differences between past and present organisms  Hard parts of an animal that are rich in minerals (bones/teeth/shells) may remain as fossils Paleontologists = scientists who study fossils  Many fossils are replicas of organisms (dead organism captured in sediment decays and leaves  empty mould, later filled by minerals dissolved in water) Fossil record = sequence in which fossils appear within layers of sedimentary rocks Provides some of the strongest evidence for evolution Relative age of fossils can be determined by which layer/strata they are found in  Fossil recor
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