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Lecture 51

BIOL 1000 Lecture 51: Lecture 51
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOL 1000
Professor
Kevin G.Scott
Semester
Fall

Description
o982 Taxon = each taxonomic unit at any level (family Felidae, or class Mammalia)  Higher classification levels are generally defined by morphological characteristic chosen by taxonomists o Rather than quantitative measurements Some biologists suggest that all classification be based on evolutionary relationships, using a  PhyloCode – names only groups that include a common ancestor and all its descendants o Most groups would remain the same, just without ranks such as family, order, or class Use phylogenetic trees to depict hypotheses about evolutionary history of species Reflect the hierarchical classification of groups nested within more inclusive groups Shared Characters are used to Construct Phylogenetic trees To reconstruct a group’s evolutionary history: 1) Sort homologous features (reflect evolutionary relationships) from analogous 2) Infer phylogeny by using homologous characters Cladistics = organisms are grouped into clades using common ancestry as the primary criterion  Based on Darwinian concept that organisms share characteristics with ancestors and differ from them Clade = a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants Used in construction of phylogenetic trees Monophyletic = describes an inclusive group of ancestor and descendants (genus, family, etc.) Means “single tribe” Shared ancestral character = character that originated in an ancestor that all clade members also  display
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