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Lecture 24

BIOL 1010 Lecture 24: Lecture 24

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1010
Emily A.Mc Kinnon

OS82 Bio 1010 S TUDY HINT The basic concept introduced in these modules is that the prokaryotes (Kingdom Monera) are a very diverse group made up of the eubacteria and the archeabacteria. Questions & Answers Explain how each of the following characteristics contributes to the success of prokaryotes: cell wall, capsule, flagella, fimbriae, endospores: Cell wall: maintains cell shape; provides physical protection; prevents cell from bursting in a hypotonic environment; Capsule: enables cell to stick to substrate or to other individuals in a colony; shields pathogens from host’s defensive cells; Flagella: provide motility, enabling cell to respond to chemical or physical signals in the environment that lead to nutrients or other members of their species and away from toxic substances; Fimbriae: allow cells to attach to surfaces, including host cells, or to each other; Endospores: withstand harsh conditions. Explain why the prokaryotes, Bacterial and Archae, are not in the same domain. Bacteria and Archaea have many significant differences, which clearly place them in different domains. Each domain has unique rRNA sequences, but the archaea and eukaryotes have some that match. Bacteria have one kind of RNA polymerase, whereas archaea and eukaryotes have several. Introns are rare in bacteria, present in most eukaryotic genes, and found in some genes of archaea. Bacteria have peptidoglycan in their cell walls, archaea have a related molecule, and the eukarya can have cellulose or chitin. Histones are associated with eukaryotic DNA but not bacterial DNA; some species of Archaea have histones. b b e d a B Explain why bacteria populations can adapt rapidly to changes in their environm
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