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BIOL 1020 (293)
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Lecture 3

BIOL 1020 Lecture 3: Lecture 3

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1020
Joy Stacey

Lecture 3 Multiple choice question: If the pH of a solution is decreased from 9 to 8, it means that the concentration of the H+ has increased 10fold and the OH has decreased 110 Essential organic chemistry for biology Organic chemistry: chemistry of carbon containing compounds carbon based life forms protein DNA Carbs, etc All have carbon as a backbone Carbon has 4 electrons in its outer shell, and can hold up to 8 Can have 4 covalent bonds to complete the outer shell tetravalent C atoms tend to bind with each other. Eg. Propane ethane They form backbones or chains with other atoms on branch points Eg. With butane and isobutene: different covalent arrangements can take part in double bonds, rings hydrocarbons only carbon and hydrogen undergo reactions that release large amounts of energy Shape of carbon carbon bonded to 4 other atoms is called tetrahedral shape double bonds in a hydrocarbon molecule have a flat shape (only hydrocarbons) isomers same molecular formula but different arrangement of atoms structural different covalent arrangements of atoms geometric same covalent arrangements but different spatial arrangement o cis isomer the 2 Xs are on the same side o trans isomer the xs are on the opposite sides o these 2 can have different chemical behaviors enantiomers mirror images of each other many biological reactions are specific to one isomer eg. D glucose is metabolized while L glucose is not eg. Enantiomers of drugs have many different kinds of effects
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