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BIOL 1410 (94)

Anatomy and Chemical Bonds

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Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1410
Jennifer Mcleese

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Anatomy  Internal +external body structures and relationships between them (bones + muscles) Cytology: Study of cells Cytologist: Studies internal cell structures Levels of Organization 1. Chemical: atoms form molecules 2. Cellular: Molecules form organelles that form cells 3. Tissue: Epithelium, Connective (CT), muscle, nervous 4. Organ: 2 or more tissues with common function (stomach has all 4) 5. Organ System 6. Organism Atoms: Electrically neutral Neutrons: Not always equal to protons and electrons Important ions/electrolytes: Ca2+, Na+, K+, H+, Cl- Organic = Covalent Bonds Inorganic  H2CO3 Carbonic Acid  HCO3- Bicarbonate Water  Lubricates joints and organs  Maintains 37 temperature Acids+Bases  Organic/inorganic  pH below 7 acidic  Acids dissolve in water releasing H+  Bases cause binding of H+  Blood is 7.35-7.45 HCO3 + H----> H2CO3 Carbs  C, H, O (CH2O)  Energy for cells 1. Monosaccharaides: Glucose, Fructose, Ribose, Deoxyribose 2. Disaccharides: Glucose + Fructose = Sucro
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