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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1412
Paul Messing

BIOL1412 01 13 2014 Membrane Transport * types: 2) Active Processes * require energy (ATP) a) Active Transport - substances move against [ ] gradient (low to high - always protein carrier-mediated (Fig. 3.7) * can e BOTH active and passive transport - types: i) PrimaryActive transport - molecular pumps -ATP breakdown is directly part of transport process - eg. Na+/K+ -ATPase Pump - 3 Na+ out of cell and 2 K+ in perATP (Fig. 3.10) ii) SecondaryActive Transport - cotransport (use ofATP is indirect) eg. glucose entry at small intestine - 2 steps: 1) Na+ gradient established by Na+/K+ -ATPase (ATP use step) (Fig. 3.11) 2) glucose & Na+ both must bind to carrier proteins and are cotransported into the cell => Na+ moving down its [ ] gradient drives against its [ ] gradient (transport step) b) Vesicular Transport - substance is surrounded by a membrane within a cell (vesicle) i) Endocytosis - movement into a cell 1) Phagocytosis - large items into cell eg. bacteria = "cell eating" 2) Pinocytosis - fluids (+ dissolved substances) into cell = "cell drinking" 3) Exocytosis - movement out of cell - vesicles containing hormones, enzymes, neurotransmitters (NT), etc. (fig 3.14) - fuse w/ cell membrane releasing contents into ECF (triggered by a rise in cytosolic CA++) Topic 3 Neurons (Fig. 11.4) * Neurons are excitable (responsive stimuli) *when stimulated (usually on cell body or dendrites) an elec. impulse may be generated and propagated along the axon = nerve impulse Electric
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