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BIOL1412 01 29 2014.docx

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University of Manitoba
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1412
Paul Messing

BIOL1412 01 29 2014 Efferent (Motor) NS: 2) Somatic NS: * Levels of Motor Control: a) Level 1: Planning - do you want to move? if yes, what movement needed?; which muscles need to contract? - plans sequence of muscle contractions - signals 1ᵒ motor cortex - works w/ input from cerebellum b) Level 2: - signals directly to lower motor neurons (via corticospinal tract) - for fine skilled movement c) Level 3: (Fig. 12.32b) - brainstem nuclei ⇒ desc. motor tracts ⇒ lower motor neurons ( = indirect tracts) - receive input from cortex, basal nuclei, cerebellum - involved in coordination of large muscle groups: - maintenance of posture - locomotion d) Level 4: Spinal Cord - contains cell bodies of lower motor neurons - networks of neurons (central pattern generators; CPGs) which set rhythmic repeated movements (eg. walking, running) - require cortical signals to begin or step movement e) Cerebellum (Fig. 12.12) - role in planning + initiating movement ⇒ sends input to cortical areas - stores planned movement + compares actual to plan, using sensory input from eg. proprioceptors - corrects if necessary - maintains balance, control eye movements & role in maintaining muscle tome ( = low level of contraction) - coordinates skilled voluntary muscle movement and timing of contractions involving more than 1 joint f) Basal Nuclei - aid in planning movement - suppress unwanted motions eg. at rest - role in maintaining muscle tone g) Corticospinal (Direct) Pathway (Fig. 12.32) (Fig. 12.9) - cortex to skel. muscle - parts: i) Upper Motor Neurons
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