FMLY 1010 Lecture 20: Lecture 20

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University of Manitoba
Family Social Sciences
FMLY 1010
Christine A.Schippers

o98729 Teratogens: Mutagenic, Environmental, and Epimutagenic Mutagenic Mutagens = agents that cause changes (mutations) in genomic DNA E.g. radiation biologicalchemical toxins Causes germinal mutation interferes with conception and development of fetus E.g. high exposure of gametes to xrays can lead to infertility Somatic mutations chromosomalgenetic errors that can cause congenital anomalies that can be transmitted to future generations Environmental Teratogens Direct, nonheritable effects on prenatal development by damaging cells or disrupting cell development Cell proliferation = the increase in cell numbers by means of cell growth and division Environmental teratogens may cause interference Cell migration = movement of cells to their genetically predetermined destinations in the body Cellular structuralfunctional abnormalities destructiondegeneration of cells Epimutagenic Teratogens Epimutagens = agents that cause abnormal gene silencing or expression without changing the genomic DNA o E.g. mothers diet can produce enduring changes on successive generations independent of later changes in diet of the offspring Paternal Influences: Preconceptual and Prenatal Fathers pass on average, 55 mutations to their children (mother passes 14) Productionperformance of sperm contributes to infertility, miscarriage, congenital anomalies Higher reproductive risk associated with men working as janitors, painters, printers, firefighters, gardeners, butchers, and in the art textile industries Sperm infected 3 months before conception can affect the prenate Genetic and epigenetic effects are greatest during first 2 trimesters More risks associated with teenage fathers and older fathers (autism, schizophrenia) Fetal Assessment and Treatment Preconception and first trimester screening assess potential for developmental complications Ultrasonography ultrasound images produced by echoes that result from bounding sound waves off of internal tissue) Chronic villus sampling cells extracted from placenta, used in laboratory tests Used when medical condition in mother needs early diagnosis Amniocentesis 1416 weeks into pregnancy, needle used to extra amniotic fluid containing fetal cells (diagnose chromosomal and genetic disorders) Lower risk of miscarriage
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