FMLY 1010 Lecture 53: Lecture 53

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Family Social Sciences
FMLY 1010
Christine A.Schippers

OD88729 Chapter 11: Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence PHYSICAL CHANGES (316) Milestones of Puberty: Puberty: collective term for physical changes that culminate in sexual maturity Pituitary Gland: gland that triggers other glands to release hormones Signals a childs adrenal gland to step up its production of androgen Called Adrenarche occurs at age 78 Secrete hormones that stimulate growth of ovaries and testes release testosterone and estrogen Pituitary also releases Thyroid stimulating hormone, and general growth hormone affect growth, two sets of body changes sex organs and broader changes in brain, bones, muscles and other body organs Primary Sex Characteristics: sex organs: ovaries, uterus, vagina, testes and penis Secondary Sex Characteristics: body parts such as breasts in females and pubic hair in both sexes Occur in defined sequence divided into five stages (pg. 317 chart) Sexual Development in Girls (318) First steps: changes in breasts, pubic hair, then growth spurt Menarche: beginning of menstrual cycle Occurs two years after beginning of other visible changes Average age 12.7 Possible to become pregnant, but usually irregular periods, produce no ovum Secular Trend: Timing of menarche has dropped significantly since 1840s when it was 17 years old Secular Trend: decline in average age of menarche, along with changes such as an increase in average height for both children and adults, that happened between mid 19 th and mid 20 th centuries in Western countries and occurs in developing nations when nutrition and health improve Change most likely to significant changes in lifestyle and diet, increase in protein and fat intake, reduction in physical exercise increase in proportion of body fat in females Being overweight is cause and consequence of early secondary sex characteristic development because hormonal changes that trigger appearance of these characteristics also signal bodys weight regulation to increase fat stores Sexual Development in Boys (319) Peak of growth spurt comes late in sequence of development Spermarche: age 1314 but production of viable sperm doesnt happen till few months after the first Beard and lowering of voice happen later on in sequence Timing of Puberty Quite a lot of individual variability in order of physical development in adolescence
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