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Lecture 19

GEOG 1280 Lecture 19: Lecture 19

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University of Manitoba
GEOG 1280
Bruce G.Erickson

c982 Clay minerals: house of cards structure held together by salts. After the dissolution of salts and compaction the structure is stronger but can fail very easily. On a flat surface the force of gravity acts downward perpendicular to the slope. On a slope, the force of gravity can be resolved into two components: a component acting perpendicular to the slope g p and a component acting tangential to the slope g . Perpendicular component holds the object in place. Tangential component of gravity causes a shear stress parallel to the slope that pulls the object in the downslope. On steeper slopes, the shear stress or tangential component of gravity, increases and the perpendicular component of gravity, decreases. Dry Sand: Angle of repose is the steepest angle at which a pile of unconsolidated grains remain stable, controlled by the frictional contact between the grains. Dry materials the angle increases with increasing grain size, usually between 30 and 37 degrees. Wet Sand: Surface tension of a thin film of water holds grains together. Saturated Sand: Water completely surrounds all grains and eliminates all grain to grain contact. Creep: Can be created by frost heaving, change in temperature and disintegration. Due to expansion and contraction cycles. EXAM QUESTION: USE DIAGRAM!!! Solifuction: Permafrost area, when it melts in the spring. Arctic environments. Frank Slide on Turtle Mountain Where: East side of Turtle mountain in the SW Alberta near Crowsnest Pass. th On April 29 1903 at 4:10 a.m., 82 million tonnes (30 million cubic metres) of limestone crashed from the summit of Turtle Mountain and buried a portion of the town of Frank. The dimensions of the rock mass that fell are 150 metres deep, 425 metres high and one km wide. Weathering: An Exogenous Process Physics actions called disintegration Large rocks to small rocks change in size Frost action: due expansion and retraction Organic: because of plants, roots etc. Salt crystal growth: added water contains salt which is deposited after evaporation, expanding surrounding materials. Unloading: take rock from the surface, therefore less weight to support so the rock can expand. Chemical actions called decomposition
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