o982 Waves In a wave the water particles are moving in circles, energy is being transmitted in the water by the wave however the water particles are not moving forward with the wave. Wave is generated by the circular movement of water. Wave Formation: As the wave approaches the shoreline, the wave begins to be affected by friction, therefore becomes more elliptical until it breaks. Fetch: Wavelength is a function of wind velocity, and fetch; wave height is controlled by wind velocity, Fetch and gradient of surface water. The longer the wind blows across a water surface, the higher the waves can become. Coastal Straightening As a wave approaches a coastline, the waves bend in correspondence with the depth of the shoreline (bays, headlands etc.). When a wave is concentrated on a headland, more energy. In a cove because of a bending of the waves, less energy. Particles are eroded on the headlands and deposited in the coves and bays. This causes a gradual straightening of the coastline Longshore Current (Drift) When waves dont hit perpendicular to the coastline, when they hit at an angle, the sand is moved along the beach. Over time, sand particles are moved in a zigzag fashion. Depositional Coastal Features Tombolo: island connected to the mainland through a tombolo (Littoral) Longshore Drift People want to protect their beaches, and prevent the movement of sediment. Install Groins which protects and captures sand. Erosional Coastal Features Wavecut terraceplatform, sea cliffs, etc.