Chapter 20: Transnational Crime
Fragmentation theory – John Rapley and Robert Kaplan
When the Roman Empire fell, Europe and all the countries began to change. More
crimes, military and political power became diffused. As nation states began to rise, so
did capitalism. National armies protecting trade routes, etc.
They are saying this system is starting to fray around the edges because of globalization.
Capital and people are becoming increasingly mobile. Capital has less taxation.
The inequality of the distribution of wealth became more pronounced in third world
The IMF and the World Bank was demanding countries to be like us.
This has lead to an erosion of national power. Local powers (gangs, cartels, mercenary
armies) begin to pop up.
o Possess similar firepower, international intelligence (and counterintelligence)
capabilities, intercontinental transport and power projection.
Guinea-Bissau – cocaine warehouse of the universe. Most of the country is controlled by
Colombian drug dealers. Cocaine headed to Europe passes through here. Very few police.
Many nice cars, clubs, etc.
The US had been cracking down on drugs, so by using this country, they aren’t hassled
traveling across the ocean.
This shows that legitimate businesses aren’t the only ones that globalize.
In the 70s, Escobar had the idea to get together all of the major Colombian drug dealers
to form the Medillian Cartel.
He sought and acquired political power, paid off officials. He also believed in superior
firepower. He wanted military firepower.
He was also innovative in money laundering. He bought legitimate businessth all over the
world the launder the drug money on an international