HNSC 1200 Unit 2: Food Production and Preservation Notes Food Production Learning Objectives: Define the common terms in food production and food preservation listed Discuss the 4 methods of increasing food production Course Notes: Four Methods of Increasing Food Productivity Agricultural chemicals Fertilizers and pesticides increase crop yield and quality when applied appropriately However,indiscriminateuseofagriculturalchemicalscancontaminatethe water that we drink and the plants and animals that we eat Aquaculture The practice of mass production of fish or seafood in ponds or in floating cages in rivers, lakes or the sea (fishfarming). With aquaculture, food safety concerns include: o Exposure to chemical pollution and oil spills Residual levels of drugs and medications in the flesh of the fish. Drugs and medications are required to prevent spread of diseases in such dense fish populations. Irrigation Involves providing water to crops Helps provide a wide variety of food that would otherwise be less available Biotechnology Genetic engineering involves modifyingmanipulating DNA to make improvements to foods. It is the practice of genetic engineering to make useful, biological products. To some extent, these practices have been going on for many years, even dating back to our early ancestors, who used genetics to modify the quality of their foods. Different species of plants were crossbred and microorganisms were used and manipulated to produce products with desired attributes. These traditional applications of biotechnology have some limitations as they are typically imprecise, random, difficult to control and time consuming. For example, natural crossbreeding of plants (breeding two parent crops) has limited results that can be obtained, because it can only be done with closely related species. It is also difficult to prevent undesired characteristics from being passed long to the new crop (first generation crop).