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HNSC 1200 (29)
Snehil Dua (29)
Lecture 1

HNSC 1200 Lecture 1: Unit 1

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Human Nutritional Sciences
HNSC 1200
Snehil Dua

HNSC 1200 Unit 1: Food, Nutrition and the Environment (The Interrelationships) Notes Food and Nutrition Common Definitions Learning Objectives: Define the common terms in food science and nutrition listed in the course  notes  List the six classes of nutrients and their division into two subgroups Differentiate between essential, non-essential and conditionally essential  nutrients Define calorie and recall the food energy provided by carbohydrates, protein, fat and alcohol  Define phytochemical, functional food and nutraceutical and discuss their potential role in health Course Notes: Definition of Food Any solid or liquid material consumed by a living organism that maintains life and growth Supplies energy, carrier of nutrients Can be processed or raw Nutrients - Nutrients are substances the body uses for the growth, maintenance and repair of its tissues. There are 6 classes of nutrients that can be divided into 2 groups: Energy Providing (meaning that the Other Nutrients (or non-energy containing) body can use the energy they contained) Carbohydrates Water Fat Vitamins Protein Minerals - Within the 6 classes of nutrients, there are essential, conditionally essential and non-essential nutrients. o Essential Nutrients: The nutrients that the body cannot make for itself from other raw materials. ▪ Ex. Minerals and the essential fatty acids linolenic acid and linoleic. Conditionally Essential Nutrients: Some nutrients are conditionally essential, meaning that the body cannot make enough to meet the requirements for health. Ex. The amino acid histidine during periods of growth Non-essential Nutrients: These are nutrients that the body can make for itself, so does not have to rely on our food intake. DSR Ex. some amino acids and some fatty acids  Measuring Food Energy Food energy is measured in calories. Energy is expressed in 1,000-calorie metric units known as kilocalories (shortened to kcalories), but commonly called “calories”. When you read “100 calories” in popular books or magazines, it actually means 100 kilocalories (kcal). Note: a kcalorie is not a constituent of foods: it is a measure of the potential energy in foods. The definition of calorie is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one litre of water by one degree Celsius. The amount of energy that a food provides depends on the content of carbohydrate, fat or protein. o Carbohydrate provides us with 4 Cal/g (=kcal/g) o Fat (lipid) provides us with 9 Cal/g o Protein provides us with 4 Cal/g o Alcohol provides us with 7 Cal/g, but is not a nutrient How To Calculate the Energy Available From Foods Multiply the number of grams of carbohydrate by 4, protein by 4 and fat by 9 and then add the results together Example: 1 slice of break with 1 tablespoon of peanut butter on it contains 16 grams of carbohydrate, 7 grams or protein and 9 grams of fat (16g carbohydrate)(4cal/g) = 64kcal (7g protein)(4kcal/g) = 28kcal (9g fat)(9kcal/g) = 81kcal TOTAL = 173kcal How To Calculate Percentage of Kcal For Each Nutrient (in relation to total kcal from the nutrients) Divide kcal of nutrient by total kcal Example: 1 slice of break with 1 tablespoon of peanut butter on it contains 16 grams of carbohydrate, 7 grams or protein and 9 grams of fat For Fat: (9g fat)(9kcal/g) = 81kcal (81kcal)/(173kcal) = 0.468 x 100 = 46.8% Therefore, 46.8% of the calories in the bread with peanut butter are coming from fat. For Protein (7g protein)(4kcal/g) = 28kcal (28kcal)/(173kcal) = 0.162 x 100 = 16.2% Phytochemicals - In plant foods, we also have substances called phytochemicals. o Non-nutrient compounds derived from plants o Have biological activity in the body cSD May suppo
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