Processed and Functional Carbohydrates Learning Objectives: Discuss the processing of high carbohydrate foodsExplain the process for brewing beerDiscuss the use of carbohydrates as functional foods or nutraceuticals Course Notes: Processing High Carbohydrate Foods Wheat, rice and corn are staple food in different parts of the world. High carbohydrate foods are often processing into more convenient form: Corn Ground to make cereals and tortillas Processed to make snack foods (e.g., corn chips) Extracted into cornstarch Cornstarch can be hydrolyzed to produce corn syrup (glucose + dextrin) Wheat Wheat kernel is composed of bran (outer layer, high in vitamins, minerals and fibre), germ (the sprouting part high in vitamins and fat) and endosperm (high in carbohydrates) The bran and germ are removed during milling and the endosperm is made into flour 75% of the wheat produced world-wide is used to produce flour, while the remainder is used to produce cereal, pasta, animals feed, wheat germ and wheat germ oil.
lOMoARcPSD 3. Durum Wheat Milled to form “semolina” (coarse flour) used to make pasta (gluten protein is what gives pasta dough its elasticity) Canadian durum wheat is exported all over the world Note: plant carbohydrates, especially corn starch are also being used in the production of ethanol (a more environmentally-friendly fuel additive used in gasoline to reduce emissions). Brewing Beer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FttkHVBu2IA Brewing of beer goes back over 6000 years and the methods have mostly stayed the same. The raw materials for beer manufacture include: o Cereal grains such as malted barley, rice, and corn which supply the carbohydrates (maltose and glucose) for fermentation o Saccharomyces yeast to ferment the carbohydrates into ethyl alcohol o Carbon dioxide (to purge oxygen from beer and enhance foaming) o Hops (to intensify flavour and colour) Water The steps to making beer: Malted barely and other cereals are mixed with water cooked to produce MASH. This process gelatinizes the starches and makes them more susceptible to fermentation The liquid portion of the mash is high in fermentable sugars and is known as WORT. The wort is transferred into a brew kettle and hops added. The mixture is brewed and the hops residue is allowed to settle The wort is drawn from the kettle through the bed of hops, which partially filters the wort The wort is then cooled and inoculated with yeast for fermentation Fermentation takes about 9 days and produces an alcohol content of approximately 4.6% as well as some amounts of carbon dioxide After fermentation is complete the beer is quickly chilled and passed through filters to remove the yeast and any suspended materials The beer is then stored in tanks for several months, which allows further settling of finely suspended materials and development of flavour compounds Additional carbon dioxide is added during storage, which