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HNSC 1200 (29)
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Lecture 19

HNSC 1200 Lecture 19: Unit 3.7

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Human Nutritional Sciences
HNSC 1200
Snehil Dua

Food Additives Learning Objectives: Define toxin and discuss examples of natural toxins Course Notes: Food additives: substances added to food either intentionally or by accident that become part of the food and affect its characteristics (like colour or flavour) Most food additives are done purposely (intentional additives), including sugar, colorings, salt, baking soda, etc. Some additives however are contaminants that are accidently introduced (indirect/incidental additives). These substances can be accidentally introduced to the food during the production, processing or packaging process Food additives have been used for thousands of year; salt used as preservative for meats, vinegar used to pickle vegetables, spices used to enhance flavors. OSDP Purpose of Food Additives Provide leavening (e.g., baking powder and baking soda allow breads and cakes to rise during baking) Control acidity/alkalinity (important for food safety to control microbial growth, as well as for the flavour, taste and colour of the food) Enhance flavour (can be natural e.g., fruit extracts, spices; or synthetic e.g., artificial sweeteners) Impart desired colour (this helps to enhance the appearance of food so that it meets our expectations as consumers – for example, most mint chocolate chip ice cream is green in colour. If the green coloring was left out and we were presented with white ice cream with chocolate bits, we would probably not expect the ice cream to taste of mint. Colorings can be synthetic of natural. Improve or maintain nutritional quality of foods (through the addition of nutrients) Maintain product consistency (e.g., prevent the food product from separating – salad dressing for example have food additives that prevent the oil and water from separating Maintain palatability and wholesomeness (e.g., preservatives added to extend the shelf life of foods) SEE TABLE 12.14: Food Additives by Function Regulations Governing Additives Health Canada has regulation under the Food and Drugs Act and Regulations that specify what food additives can be used to ensure the safety of Canadians These regulations alsodictate the foodsthat foodadditivescan be addedto , and the maximum amount that can be added to foods Food additives are subject to ongoing review by Health Canada as scientific research continues The list of approved additives, foods additives are allowed in, and the maximum amounts allowed can be modified as new information is released about the safety of food additives (for example, if research show a health risk from a food additive, Health Canada could remove it from the list of food additives that are allowed for use). Criteria for food additives: o Must be safe for continued use o Must not lead to deception of the consumer o Must be an advantage to consumer Direct Food Additives: 1. Antimicrobial agents: o Act like preservatives to prevent microorganisms from growing o E.g., sugar and salt are the most widely used, nitrates cSD 2. Antioxidants Prevent the oxidation of fats, ultimately preventing discoloration of foods and fats from turning rancid. Without antioxidants, salad dressings will go rancid very quickly E.g., Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), sulphites, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) Artificial Food Colours Colour additives are used to make foods attractive and to identify flavors (e.g., yellow jellybeans is associated with lemon taste) Added to replace colour lost during processing or storage and to correct colour variations that can naturally occur in foods Artificial Flavors Used to enhance flavour of foods o Artificial flavors are the largest group of food additives E.g., monosodium glutamate (MSG) and hydrolyzed vegetable proteins In Canada, MSG is considered an ingredient and not an additive, but it must be declared on the label. Not allowed in foods designed for infants MSG imparts a taste called umami (savory) to foods Some people experience adverse reactions when they consume MSG. These adverse reactions are classified as MSG Symptom Complex, as include headache, flushing of the chest and face, and burning sensations Nutrient Additives Added to fortify or maintain nutritional quality of foods (add back the nutrients lost during processing – enrichment) E.g., iodine added to salt, vitamins A and D added to milk, folic acid and other B vitamins added to breakfast cereals Indirect (incidental) Food Additives: 1. Physical Additives E.g., pieces of glass, plastic, paper, metal, packaging, etc. Accidentally introduced during processing E.g., in November of 2011, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency issued a Health Hazard Alert for Woody’s brand Mexican Lime Alcoholic Vodka Beverages because they may have been contained glass fragments. cfia/newsroom/food-recall-warnings/complete-listing/2011-11- 09/eng/1357653787454/1357653787470 Chemical Additives Methylene chloride o Used to remove caffeine in the production to decaffeinated tea or coffee o Traces are left in the decaffeinated product An average cup contains 0.1 parts per million which poses no significant health hazard oSDP b. Dioxins Compounds formed during chlorine treatment of wood pulp during paper manufacture Found in coffee filters, milk cartons, paper plates and frozen food packages Contamination occurs only in trace quantities (in parts per trillion range) and these levels appear to pose no health risk to humans Chemicals leached from plastic containers when used inappropriately E.g., using margarine tub to store leftover food, and then heating in microwave. When heated, particles from the tub can migrate into the food. Make sure that you check your containers to ensure that they are microwave safe before using them in the microwave Bisphenol A (BPA) See earlier discussion regarding BPA in “Non-Bacterial Food Contamination. Food Allergy Learning Objectives: Define food allergy, discuss the incidence of food allergies in Canada, symptoms seen, and how a food allergy occurs Identify the nine most common cause of food allergies in Canada
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