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HNSC 1200 (29)
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Lecture 26

HNSC 1200 Lecture 26: Unit 5.3

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Human Nutritional Sciences
HNSC 1200
Snehil Dua

Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Learning Objectives: Differentiate between the structure of linoleic and linolenic acid and between  omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids Discuss the role of fats as functional foods and nutraceuticals Course Notes: See FIGURE 17 Essentialfattyacids(EFAs)arefattyacidsthatthebodycannotmakeitself,that we must get from foods Linoleic acid (which is an example of an omega-6 fatty acid) and Linolenic acid (which is an example of an omega-3 fatty) are the only essential fatty acids The EFAs can be used by the body to make eicosanoids, which are biologically active compounds that regulate body functions. Eicosanoids act somewhat like hormones. Theycan effect musclerelaxation andcontraction, bloodvesseldilatation and constriction, blood clot formation, blood lipid regulation and immune response to injury and infection. EFAs serve many functions in our body. Research is showing that EFAs enhance the cognitive abilities in infants Omega-6 (n-6) Fatty Acids Omega-6 fatty acids get their name because of a double carbon bond 6 carbons from the end of its chain Linoleic acid is an example of an omega-6 fatty acid o DRI recommendation: 5-10% energy from n-6 fatty acids o Sources: vegetable oils, seeds, buts, whole grain products Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids Omega-3 fatty acids get their name because of a double carbon bond 3 carbons from the end of its chain Linolenic acid is an example of an omega-3 fatty acid o DRI recommendation: 0.6-1.2% energy from n-3 fatty acids Sources: flaxseed, flaxseed oil, canola oil, fish (especially deep sea fish) Research has shown that a higher intake of the omega-3 fatty acids can often improve the health of the heart. oSDP Our ratio of intake of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids is important, so we can improve this ratio by increasing our intake of omega-3 fatty acids and keeping our intake of omega-6 fatty acids at a moderate level There are three main types of omega-3 fatty acids: o ALA (alphalinolenic acid) – from plant sources o EPA (eicosanpentaenoic acid) – from fish sources DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) – from fish sources When given linolenic acid, the body can make other omega-3 fatty acids. Two specific omega-3 fatty acids are receiving great interest from research – EPA and DHA, however the body only makes limited amounts of these omega-3’s They are found abundantly in the oils of certain fish (deep sea, fatty fish, like salmon, char, mackerel, herring, cod, etc.). Results from many population studies and clinical trials have supported a recommendation to eat fish The American Heart Association recently released recommendations to include two to three fish meals per week, and Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide encourages Canadians to have two meals with fish per week. Research on Omega-3 and Omega-6 Research first began on these fatty acids when researchers were trying to determine why people in Greenland and Alaska, with high fat diets, had such low rates of heart disease Research led to the high marine-based diet with an abundance of fish and an abundance of these heart healthy fatty acids The low incidence of cardiovascular disease in Inuit population has been attributed to the high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio in their diet which is based principally on fish products Fish oil contain a high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio The EPA/DHA content tends to be higher in grilled, baked or broiled fish Fish used for fryi
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